Pertempuran-Kapak

Pertempuran-Kapak

Kapak perang adalah senjata utama yang digunakan oleh kereta rumah Raja Harold di Pertempuran Hastings. Sebuah kapak perang digunakan dalam pertarungan tangan kosong atau bisa dilemparkan sebagai rudal. Gagang kayu bisa sepanjang 150 cm (5 kaki). Bilah berbentuk bulan sabit berukuran sekitar 25 cm (10 inci) antara titik atas dan bawah dari ujung tombaknya yang lebar. Terbuat dari baja, kapak perang mampu memotong anggota tubuh atau kepala dalam satu pukulan. Selama pertempuran, kapak biasanya digunakan dengan kedua tangan sehingga prajurit tidak dapat membawa perisai untuk melindungi dirinya dari musuh.


Kapak Perang - Sejarah

Augustan, Vol. XI, No.2, Maret-April 1968.

KONTINUITAS TUGAS DI LENGAN KLAN KUNO

Oleh Kapten R. Mingo Sweeney
Illus. oleh Pdt. Dom William W. Bayne, OSB, FAS

Suibhne telah diterjemahkan ke dalam banyak variasi, yaitu Sween, MacSween, MacQueen, MacEwen di Scotlapd dan Swiney, MacSwiney, Mac Sweeney, MacSwyny, MacSweyne dan lain-lain di Irlandia. Selain itu, bantalan pelindung dari Septs dan Kepala Suku Klan ini telah berubah secara signifikan selama berabad-abad, tetapi tetap mempertahankan gaya dasar babi hutan dan kapak perang.

Lengan asli dan tidak berbeda tidak diverifikasi secara historis, meskipun mereka telah dinyalakan oleh Burke dalam General Armory-nya sebagai Or (atau argent) tiga babi hutan lalu sable. Sebuah segel digunakan oleh Lords of Knapdale pada abad ke-13, tetapi tidak ada salinannya yang masih ada.

Senjata pertama yang tercatat secara resmi dipikul oleh seorang Murragh Mac Sweeney, yang catatannya dalam Annals of the Four Masters berbunyi:
Murragh Mac Sweeney ditawan di Umailia oleh Donnell, putra Manus O'Conor, yang menyerahkannya ke Earl (de Burgh, Earl of Ulster) yang di penjaranya dia meninggal.
Ini bertanggal The Age of Christ 1267. Lengannya dicatat sebagai berikut: Mac Sweeney (Co. Donegal). Moragh Mac Sweeney, Kepala Suku 1267, Kantor Reg.Ulster. Argent singa di Chief dan babi hutan di pangkalan keduanya lulus. warna merah.

Serangan singa ini tidak biasa dan berulang seperti yang akan kita lihat di lengan yang dipikul oleh Rt. sayang Peter Paul MacSwiney, Walikota Dublin, yang menggunakan perisai ini sebagai dasar untuk desain Hibahnya. Morrogh ini memiliki sejarah yang penuh warna, dan catatan sejarah keluarga menyebutkan dia sebagai "juara Raja Skotlandia," yang mungkin menjelaskan singa "kemerahan".

Dari cabang lain Klan ini, satu john de Sweyne adalah Kapten Armada Pelabuhan Cinque Edward I, dan ayahnya memiliki hubungan dekat dengan Durham dari mana Balliols dan Comyns memiliki tanah. john juga terdaftar memiliki tanah di sana, dan bertahun-tahun kemudian, selama Kunjungan William Flowery, Norroy King of Arms (1575) sebuah monumen dengan lambang berikut dicatat:
SWYNE: Argent bulu babi hutan atau. (Perhatikan bahwa ini hampir identik dengan Morrogh, tanpa kepala singa.)

Setelah Pertempuran Bannockburn (1314) Kepala dan garis senior keluarga didirikan di Kastil Rathmullan di Tyreconnell (sekarang Donegal). Lengan Kepala ini dicatat di Kastil Dublin sebagai: Atau, seorang vert fess dibebankan dengan argent reptil antara tiga babi hutan lewat sable. Kesamaan antara lengan ini dan yang sebelumnya disebutkan oleh Burke sebagai lengan "tidak berbeda" dapat dicatat. Penambahan fess hijau dan reptil putih menarik. Satu-satunya pemikiran saya adalah bahwa para Penguasa Fanad ini memperkenalkan Karmelit ke Donegal dan membangun sebuah Biara untuk mereka di Rathmullan. Seingat saya salah satu simbol Perawan Maria adalah bunglon putih. mungkinkah ini relevan?

Lambang dari garis senior memahami bahwa dari Klan Neil, Lengan berbaju besi yang disematkan memegang kapak perang yang tepat. Ini juga tampak aneh kecuali tradisi bahwa Clan Sween adalah keturunan dari Clan Neil. Namun di Irlandia mereka mendukung O'Donnell, musuh bebuyutan lama O'Neils.

Dua Kadet Sept dari House senior dengan cepat menyebar ke bagian lain dari kerajaan O'Donnell-yaitu na d'Tuath (atau na Doe seperti yang diterjemahkan dalam bahasa Inggris) di Kastil Doe dekat Creeslough dan cabang Banagh di Kastil Rathain di pantai barat . Kedua sept ini mengadopsi perisai dengan desain yang sama, meskipun tincture berbeda:

Na d'Tuatha: Azure, dua babi hutan kombatan yang merajalela atau, terutama dua kapak perang di saltire yang kedua.

Banagh: Atau, dua babi hutan musang petarung yang merajalela, di atas kepala dua kapak perang kedua di saltire yang pertama.

Lambang yang pertama adalah A demi-griffin atau, memegang di cakarnya vert reptil. Jambul yang terakhir adalah A celeng melewati musang.

Sulit untuk mengetahui mengapa kedua Rumah ini mengubah desain, kecuali bahwa Mac Sweeney dikenal sebagai "Klan Kapak Perang", dan mereka mungkin ingin serangan ini lebih menonjol di perisai mereka. Penunjukan itu datang melalui dua penyebab: Kapak perang adalah "alat perdagangan" klan sebagai prajurit galloglass (lihat penulis "The Galloglass," The Augustan, X, vi, 261) dan penunjukan na d'Tuatha adalah distrik) mudah dikacaukan dengan na d'Tuatha (distrik) mudah dikacaukan dengan na d'Tua (kapak perang) Pemikiran lain adalah bahwa seorang Kepala Suku na Tuatha dianugerahi gelar kebangsawanan pada masa pemerintahan Ratu Elizabeth I, dan desain yang diubah ini mungkin telah dilembagakan pada waktu itu.

Sebuah cabang House of Tuatha pergi ke selatan di mana mereka menjadi High Constables ke McCarthy M r of Desmond, cabang paling terkemuka yang berpusat di Kastil Mashanaglass. Cabang ini melanjutkan versi yang berbeda dari senjata Tuatha: Per Pale gules dan biru, masing-masing diisi dengan seekor babi hutan yang merajalela melawan cerpelai pada satu atau dua kapak perang di argent asin. Jambulnya adalah A demi-griffin atau diisi dengan seekor fleur-de-lis sable yang memegang di cakarnya seekor vert reptil.

Jelas bahwa tingtur kepala melanggar hukum lambang. Sebagai perwakilan dari garis ini diciptakan Marquis Romawi turun-temurun, dan warna Vatikan juga melanggar aturan yang sama (seperti yang dilakukan Kerajaan Yerusalem) beberapa alasan untuk ini mungkin dicari di dalamnya.

Disebutkan sebelumnya telah dibuat untuk Peter Paul MacSwiney, Walikota Dublin. Lengannya jelas didasarkan pada lengan Morrough kuno, dan Argent, sebuah fess biru yang diisi dengan dua kapak perang di saltire Atau di antara kepala singa yang lewat, dan di pangkalan babi hutan yang lewat. Di sini dia telah membawa setiap tuduhan yang diketahui keluarganya kecuali reptil, yang termasuk dalam lambangnya: Seekor setengah griffin atau, memegang di dexter claw'a reptil vert. Kemudian untuk memastikan dia menyerang griffin dengan sable kapak perang Crossed.

Sebuah cabang dari House of Banagh menjadi High Constables bagi O'Conor Don, dan bagi Butler, Earl of Ormonde. Dari yang terakhir ini cabang bersenjata turun yang menetap di Pulau Pangeran Edward, sekarang menjadi Provinsi Kanada. Lengan mereka mengikuti House of Fanad senior dalam tingtur, meskipun vert tikungan telah digantikan oleh dua vert flaunches diisi dengan mahkota antik yang mewakili kerajaan Gaelik kuno Irlandia dan Skotlandia. Untuk lambang mereka menggunakan vert griffin, memegang kapak perang (dari lengan Fanad lagi) dan reptil telah menghilang. Lengan ini bisa berkobar Atau, tiga babi hutan di sable sable pucat menebak, antara dua

Jadi senjata berubah selama berabad-abad bahkan dalam keluarga yang sama, namun tetap cukup mirip untuk melacak perkembangannya. Beberapa alasan yang diberikan di sini didasarkan pada hukum probabilitas dan hipotesis lain akan sangat diterima.

Deskripsi senjata yang digambarkan di sini adalah sebagai berikut:


Sween dari Knapdale: Atau, tiga babi hutan lewat sable.


Mac Sweeney Fanad: Atau, di vert fess antara tiga babi hutan lewat sable, argent kadal.


Mac Sweeney Banagh: (Tuath) Atau, dua babi hutan musang petarung merajalela, pada kepala dua kedua pertempuran-kapak di saltire yang pertama.


Moragh M r Mac Sweeney (1267): Argent, singa di kepala dan babi hutan di pangkalan kedua passantgules.


Mac Sweeney na d'Tuatha (juga Kapten Daniel Gorm Mac Sweeney dari Donegal, 1638): Azure, dua celeng kombatan yang merajalela atau, terutama dua kapak perang di saltire yang terakhir (atau).
Crest: Sebuah demi-griffin merajalela atau memegang di cakar Kadal yang tepat.

MacSwiney dari Mashanaglass: Per biru pucat dan gules diisi dengan dua babi hutan kontra-cerpelai, petarung yang merajalela di kepala atau dua kapak perang di argent asin.


Crest (kanan): Demi-griffin merajalela atau memegang kadal dengan cekatannya, dan menyerang dengan fleur-de-lis sable. Diatasi oleh mahkota seorang Marquis.


Peter Paul MacSwiney: Berdebat di atas langit biru antara kepala singa yang lewat dan di pangkalan seekor babi hutan, dua kapak perang di saltire atau.
Crest: Segreant setengah griffin atau, memegang kadal dengan benar, dan menyerang dada dengan dua kapak perang di sable saltire. Motto:. Tuagha tulaig abu.


Sweeney dari Bolger's Park Canada: Atau, tiga celeng sable, gules lesu, pucat pasi antara dua vert flaunches masing-masing diisi dengan mahkota antik yang pertama.
Crest: Seekor makhluk setengah griffin yang memegang kapak perang di cakarnya yang cekatan. Motto: Clan na d'Tua Abu.


Lengan yang diilustrasikan untuk Uskup Kilmore (atas) dan Uskup Agung Toronto (bawah) adalah milik Keuskupan masing-masing.


Uskup Sweeney dari St. John memilih sebagai perisainya gambaran Perawan, dengan lingkaran cahaya bintang. (di bawah)


Senjata Kapten Richard Patrick Fortier Mingo Sweeney, C.E.M., K.L.j., F.R.S.A., F.R.C.S., dll.:

Triwulanan, 1 dan 4: Atau, tiga babi hutan lewat di gule berlantai pate sable di antara dua vert flaunches, masing-masing diisi dengan mahkota antik yang pertama, dalam borduregule 2 dan 3, triwulanan 1 dan 4, Argent, enam estoilles gules 2 dan 3, Gules, singa merajalela atau (untuk Mingo).

Crest: Seekor makhluk setengah griffin yang memegang kapak perang di cakarnya.


Isi

Asal Edit

Budaya Battle Axe muncul di selatan Semenanjung Skandinavia sekitar 2800 SM. Itu adalah cabang dari budaya Corded Ware, yang sebagian besar merupakan cabang dari budaya Yamnaya di stepa Pontic-Caspian. Studi genetik modern menunjukkan bahwa kemunculannya disertai dengan migrasi skala besar dan perpindahan genetik. Budaya Battle Axe awalnya menyerap budaya Funnelbeaker pertanian. [1]

Distribusi Edit

Konsentrasi budaya Battle Axe ada di Scania. Situs budaya Battle Axe telah ditemukan di seluruh wilayah pesisir Skandinavia selatan dan Finlandia barat daya. [2] Garis pantai langsung, bagaimanapun, ditempati oleh budaya Pitted Ware. [2] Pada 2300 SM, budaya Battle Axe telah menyerap budaya Pitted Ware.

Sepanjang keberadaannya, budaya Battle Axe tampaknya telah berkembang ke pesisir Norwegia, disertai dengan perubahan budaya yang dramatis. [2] Einar stmo melaporkan situs budaya Battle Axe di dalam Lingkaran Arktik Norwegia di Lofoten, dan sejauh utara kota Troms saat ini. [3]

Penerus Sunting

Budaya Battle Axe berakhir sekitar 2300 SM. Itu akhirnya digantikan oleh Zaman Perunggu Nordik, yang tampaknya merupakan perpaduan unsur-unsur dari budaya Battle Axe dan budaya Pitted Ware. [4]

Pengeditan Pemakaman

Budaya Battle Axe sebagian besar dikenal karena penguburannya. Sekitar 250 kuburan Battle Axe telah ditemukan di Swedia. Mereka sangat berbeda dari yang ditemukan dalam budaya Kuburan Tunggal Denmark. [2]

Dalam budaya Battle Axe, almarhum biasanya ditempatkan di satu kuburan datar tanpa gerobak. Kuburan biasanya berorientasi utara-selatan, dengan tubuh dalam posisi tertekuk menghadap ke timur. Laki-laki ditempatkan di sisi kiri mereka, sementara wanita ditempatkan di sisi kanan mereka. Baik dari segi objek maupun penempatannya, barang kubur cukup standar. Kapak batu ditemukan di pemakaman pria dan wanita. Kapak perang ditempatkan dengan pejantan dekat dengan kepala. [2] Kapak perang ini tampaknya merupakan simbol status, dan dari situlah budaya tersebut dinamai. Sekitar 3000 kapak perang telah ditemukan, di lokasi yang tersebar di seluruh Skandinavia, tetapi jarang di Norrland dan Norwegia utara. [ kutipan diperlukan ] Kapak batu yang dipoles dari budaya Battle Axe dan budaya Pitted Ware melacak asal-usul yang sama di Scania barat daya dan Denmark. Keramik Corded Ware juga merupakan barang kuburan umum di pemakaman Battle Axe. Mereka biasanya ditempatkan di dekat kepala atau kaki. Barang kuburan lainnya termasuk panah, senjata tanduk, manik-manik kuning, dan kapak batu dan pahat yang dipoles. Sisa-sisa fauna dari penguburan termasuk rusa merah, domba, dan kambing. [2]

Sebuah aspek baru diberikan pada budaya Battle Axe pada tahun 1993, ketika a rumah kematian di Turinge, di Södermanland digali. Di sepanjang dinding yang dulunya banyak kayu ditemukan sisa-sisa sekitar dua puluh bejana tanah liat, enam kapak kerja dan kapak perang, yang semuanya berasal dari periode terakhir budaya. Ada juga sisa-sisa kremasi setidaknya enam orang. Ini adalah penemuan kremasi paling awal di Skandinavia dan menunjukkan kontak dekat dengan Eropa Tengah. [ kutipan diperlukan ]

Penyelesaian Sunting

Beberapa pemukiman budaya Battle Axe telah ditemukan. Sebagian besar berada di pedalaman, namun ada juga yang berada di daerah pesisir. Pemukiman budaya Battle Axe, bagaimanapun, tidak terletak langsung di garis pantai, yang agak ditempati oleh budaya Pitted Ware. [2] Kurang dari 100 pemukiman diketahui, dan sisa-sisanya dapat diabaikan karena terletak di lahan pertanian yang terus digunakan, dan akibatnya telah dibajak.

Sisa-sisa arkeologi Swedia selatan mengungkapkan hubungan spasial yang erat antara rumah dan kuburan, menunjukkan bahwa pertanian merupakan pusat kegiatan sosial dan ekonomi dalam budaya Battle Axe. [2]

Edit Tembikar

Tembikar Battle Axe sering ditemukan di pemukiman Pitted Ware. Beberapa pemukiman bahkan menampilkan perpaduan gaya tembikar dari budaya Battle Axe dan budaya Pitted Ware. Hubungan antara dua budaya ini kontroversial dan tidak dipahami dengan baik. [2]

Budaya Sunting

Sistem sosial budaya Battle Axe sangat berbeda dengan budaya Funnelbeaker, ditunjukkan oleh fakta bahwa budaya Funnelbeaker memiliki kuburan megalitik kolektif, masing-masing berisi banyak pengorbanan, sedangkan budaya Battle Axe memiliki kuburan individu, dengan satu pengorbanan masing-masing. . Individualisme tampaknya telah memainkan peran yang jauh lebih menonjol dalam budaya Battle Axe daripada di antara para pendahulunya. [2] [5]

Ekonomi Edit

Budaya Battle Axe didasarkan pada praktik pertanian yang sama dengan budaya Funnelbeaker sebelumnya. [ kutipan diperlukan ] Budaya Battle Axe tampaknya telah menekankan penggembalaan ternak, yang menjelaskan sifat budaya yang terlihat bergerak. [2] Mereka juga tampaknya terlibat dalam perdagangan dengan penduduk di utara mereka, menukar produk hewani dengan barang-barang material. [6]

Einar stmo menekankan bahwa wilayah pesisir Atlantik dan Laut Utara di Skandinavia, dan daerah-daerah sekitar Baltik [7] disatukan oleh ekonomi maritim yang kuat, memungkinkan penyebaran geografis yang jauh lebih luas dan kesatuan budaya yang lebih dekat daripada yang dapat dicapai oleh budaya kontinental interior. Dia menunjuk pada jumlah pahatan batu yang disebarluaskan yang ditugaskan untuk era tersebut, yang menampilkan "ribuan" kapal. Untuk budaya pelayaran seperti itu, laut adalah jalan raya dan bukan pemisah. [3]

Budaya Battle Axe diyakini telah membawa bahasa Indo-Eropa dan budaya Indo-Eropa ke Skandinavia selatan. Perpaduan budaya Battle Axe dengan budaya pertanian dan pemburu-pengumpul asli di wilayah tersebut melahirkan Zaman Perunggu Nordik, yang dianggap sebagai peradaban leluhur bangsa Jerman. [8]

Tipe fisik orang Battle Axe berbeda dengan tipe fisik orang Funnelbeaker sebelumnya di Skandinavia selatan. [9]

Sebuah studi genetik diterbitkan di Alam pada bulan Juni 2015 memeriksa sisa-sisa laki-laki Battle Axe yang dimakamkan di Viby, Swedia ca. 2621-2472 SM. [10] [11] Ia ditemukan sebagai pembawa haplogroup ayah R1a1a1 dan haplogroup ibu K1a2a. [11] Orang-orang dari budaya Neolitikum Akhir dan Zaman Perunggu Skandinavia ditemukan sangat erat hubungannya dengan budaya Corded Ware, budaya Bell Beaker dan budaya Unetice, yang semuanya memiliki kesamaan genetik dengan budaya Yamnaya. Budaya Sintashta dan budaya Andronovo di Asia Tengah juga menunjukkan hubungan genetik yang erat dengan budaya Corded Ware. [12]

Sebuah studi genetik diterbitkan di Komunikasi Alam pada Januari 2018 memeriksa seorang pria yang dimakamkan di lsund di Swedia utara ca. 2570–2140. Meskipun terkubur tanpa artefak, ia ditemukan di dekat situs arkeologi yang berisi artefak pemburu-pengumpul dan barang-barang yang dijalin dengan tali. [13] Ia ditemukan sebagai pembawa haplogroup ayah R1a1a1b dan haplogroup ibu U4c2a. [14] Ia ditemukan secara genetik mirip dengan orang-orang dari budaya Battle Axe, membawa sejumlah besar keturunan yang berhubungan dengan stepa. [15] [16] Haplogroup pihak ayah R1a1a1b juga ditemukan sebagai garis keturunan dominan di antara laki-laki Corded Ware dan Zaman Perunggu di Baltik timur. [14]

Sebuah studi genetik diterbitkan di Prosiding Royal Society B memeriksa sisa-sisa 2 individu Battle Axe yang dimakamkan di Bergsgraven di Swedia tengah. Laki-laki membawa haplogroup ayah R1a-Z283 dan haplogroup ibu U4c1a, sedangkan betina membawa haplogroup ibu N1a1a1a1. [17] Haplogroup R1a adalah haplogroup ayah yang paling umum di antara laki-laki dari budaya lain dari cakrawala Corded Ware, dan sebelumnya telah ditemukan di antara Pemburu-Pengumpul Timur (EHG). Menariknya, budaya Yamnaya di sisi lain didominasi oleh haplogroup ayah R1b. [18] Kedua individu Battle Axe yang diperiksa ditemukan berkerabat dekat dengan orang-orang dari bagian lain cakrawala Corded Ware. Mereka sebagian besar keturunan Western Steppe Herder (WSH), meskipun dengan sedikit campuran Western Hunter-Gatherer (WHG) dan Early European Farmer (EEF). Pencampuran tampaknya telah terjadi melalui perkawinan jantan WSH dengan betina EEF dan WHG. Nenek moyang individu Battle Axe sangat berbeda dari populasi Neolitik sebelumnya, menunjukkan stratifikasi di antara kelompok budaya. Keturunan WSH belum terdeteksi di antara populasi sebelumnya di daerah tersebut. Hasil lebih lanjut mendukung gagasan bahwa budaya Battle Axe muncul sebagai akibat dari migrasi dari tenggara Baltik. [19] Penelitian ini juga meneliti seorang wanita yang dikuburkan di megalit Funnelbeaker di llsjö, Swedia c. 2860–2500 SM, di mana area tersebut merupakan bagian dari budaya Battle Axe. Dia membawa haplogroup ibu H6a1b3, [20] dan ditemukan terkait erat secara genetik dengan orang lain dari budaya Battle Axe. [21] Dua individu terkubur di megalit yang sama selama Neolitik Akhir juga terkait erat dengan orang-orang dari budaya Corded Ware. [21]

Malmström dkk. (2020) meneliti individu budaya Pitted Ware Gotland. Beberapa penguburan mereka berisi artefak Battle Axe yang khas. Namun, tidak satu pun dari individu-individu ini yang menyimpan campuran dari budaya Battle Axe, yang menunjukkan bahwa orang-orang dari kedua budaya tersebut berinteraksi tanpa kawin silang. [22] Orang-orang Eropa Utara modern ditemukan masih berkerabat dekat secara genetik dengan orang-orang dari budaya Battle Axe. [23]


3. Surat berantai

Kredit: DeAgostini/Getty Images

Suku-suku barbar kadang-kadang dikenal terburu-buru dalam pertempuran telanjang untuk mengintimidasi musuh-musuh mereka, tetapi mereka juga memiliki berbagai macam perisai dan baju besi. Di antara yang paling efektif adalah chainmail, yang mungkin telah ditemukan di Eropa oleh Celtic Galia pada abad ketiga SM. Kebanyakan surat Galia berbentuk kemeja lengan pendek atau rompi yang terbuat dari jalinan cincin logam kecil yang saling bertautan. Ini memberikan fleksibilitas sekaligus melindungi pemakainya dari tebasan pedang dan belati, yang hanya akan melirik permukaan luarnya yang keras. Chainmail sangat padat karya untuk membuat —sebuah rompi tunggal mungkin mencakup puluhan ribu cincin—sehingga cenderung dikenakan oleh kepala suku dan bangsawan barbar daripada prajurit berpangkat tinggi. Namun demikian, efektivitasnya dalam pertempuran membuatnya sangat dihargai di antara orang Romawi, yang akhirnya mengadopsi kemeja surat serupa yang dikenal sebagai “lorica hamata” untuk legiun mereka.


Kapak Buruk, Pertempuran

Lukisan pemandangan oleh Samuel Marsden Brookes dan Thomas H. Stevenson ini menggambarkan pandangan luas dari pertemuan Bad Axe dan situs Sungai Mississippi dari pertempuran penutup Perang Black Hawk 1832. Lihat dokumen sumber asli: WHI 2531

Pertempuran Bad Axe pada 1-2 Agustus 1832, adalah pertempuran penutup dari Perang Black Hawk.

Setelah menahan pengejar di Battle of Wisconsin Heights (terletak sekitar 1,5 mil selatan Kota Sauk sekarang, Wisconsin) Chief Black Hawk memimpin orang-orangnya melewati negara asing dan berbatu menuju Sungai Mississippi. Sementara itu, Angkatan Darat AS memperingatkan pihak berwenang di Fort Crawford di Prairie du Chien.

Kepala Black Hawk dan pengikut Sauk-nya, yang sekarang berkurang menjadi sekitar 400 pria, wanita dan anak-anak yang kelaparan, mencapai Mississippi di muara Sungai Bad Axe pada 1 Agustus. Mereka segera mulai bekerja membuat rakit dan kano. Sekitar 1.300 infanteri dan milisi AS hanya berjarak satu hari perjalanan, dan mereka harus menyeberang sekarang atau terjebak di tepi sungai.

Saat itu, kapal uap "Prajurit" tiba. Black Hawk melakukan upaya jujurnya yang ketiga untuk menyerah [yang pertama adalah di Stillman's Run dan yang kedua setelah Pertempuran Wisconsin Heights]. Awak dan tentara di kapal uap mencurigainya sebagai tipuan, dan mereka melepaskan tembakan, menewaskan 25 prajurit Black Hawk dan menghabiskan waktu mereka yang berharga.

Saat malam tiba di band putus asa, mereka dibagi tentang apa yang harus dilakukan selanjutnya. Sebagian besar ingin menyeberangi Mississippi sesegera mungkin, tetapi Black Hawk dan Waubakeehik ingin berjalan ke utara dengan berjalan kaki, dan berlindung di antara Ho-Chunk dan Ojibwe.

Terlepas dari keinginannya untuk mendukung bandnya di Bad Axe, pada akhirnya Black Hawk, Wabokieshiek dan keluarga mereka melarikan diri ke utara dengan berjalan kaki dan bersembunyi di dekat Tomah modern, Wisconsin. Mereka tetap di sana sampai ditemukan oleh pemburu Ho-Chunk yang membantu mereka menyerah kepada orang kulit putih beberapa hari setelah pembantaian di Bad Axe.

Pada awal 2 Agustus, Sauk yang tersisa berusaha menyeberangi Sungai Mississippi. Pasukan AS, yang tiba di tebing semalaman, menyerang mereka dari belakang. Kapal uap "Prajurit" kembali ke tempat kejadian sekitar pukul 10:00 pagi, menembakkan meriamnya. Prajurit dan non-pejuang yang hampir kelaparan -- pria, wanita dan anak-anak -- dibantai tanpa pandang bulu di pantai, di lahan basah, dan saat mencoba berenang atau berkano melintasi Mississippi. Sebagian besar dari sedikit yang berhasil menyeberang diburu dan dibunuh oleh prajurit Sioux yang bertindak atas permintaan perwira AS.


Sejarah/Informasi Merek Battle Axe

Saya ingin tahu lebih banyak tentang sejarah dan produk Battle Axe Brand. Dari sedikit yang saya ketahui, ada hubungan dengan nama JW Hickey & Sons, Hickey & Shouse, dan Souse & Hardin yang tertera pada beberapa pisau. Ada juga "Battle Axe Cutlery Co" yang lebih tua. dalam campuran. Sejauh ini saya telah menemukan sangat sedikit penyebutan salah satu dari ini, tetapi saya telah memperoleh beberapa pisau dan mereka tampaknya memiliki kualitas dan desain yang sangat baik. Jika Anda dapat menambah pengetahuan saya, saya akan berterima kasih.

Balasan untuk Diskusi Ini

Jim-Mereka adalah 2 perusahaan yang berbeda. Battle Axe Cutlery co yang lebih tua. dibuat untuk atau oleh A.R. Justice, (Alfred Rudolph Justice), pedagang grosir perangkat keras Philadelphia sekitar tahun 1877-1937, yang beralih ke peralatan makan dan pelapis perak. Anda dapat menemukan contoh pisau saku serta peralatan makan miliknya dengan cap Battle Axe.

Merek Battle Axe yang lebih baru, sekitar tahun 1975-1990 digunakan oleh sekelompok pria yang spesialisasinya adalah mengimpor & menjual pisau peringatan berkualitas baik dan beberapa pisau produksi.Ini adalah pisau edisi terbatas batch kecil dan biasanya bersambung. Mereka akan datang dengan desain, dan sebuah pabrik di Solingen, Jerman memproduksinya. Mereka diperkirakan dibuat oleh pabrik Frederich Olbertz di Solingen. Pisau menggunakan baja karbon 1095 dan bahan pegangan berkualitas baik.

Rupanya, anggota kelompok yang berbeda merancang & membeli pisau yang berbeda, sehingga banyak kolaborasi nama yang berbeda pada pisau.

JW Cupang dari Winston-Salem NC, Tommy Shouse dari Winston-Salem, & George Smith dari Hardin Wholesale yang kemudian menjadi partner di Blue Grass Cutlery.

Terima kasih balasannya. Terima kasih kepada Anda, saya tahu lebih banyak hari ini daripada yang saya tahu kemarin

Dalam kurun waktu tersebut (1975-1990) nampaknya banyak sekali karya kreatif yang lahir di dunia peralatan makan. Bulldog, dan Fight'n Rooster, memproduksi barang dengan kualitas tinggi, desain bagus, dan dijual dalam waktu singkat.

Battle Axe juga melakukan hal yang sama tetapi mereka tidak begitu dikenal. Karena sejarah mereka baru-baru ini dan beberapa pemain utama mungkin masih ada, kami mungkin berharap untuk sejarah dan/atau katalog suatu hari nanti.

Jim-Mereka adalah 2 perusahaan yang berbeda. Battle Axe Cutlery co yang lebih tua. dibuat untuk atau oleh A.R. Justice, (Alfred Rudolph Justice), pedagang grosir perangkat keras Philadelphia sekitar tahun 1877-1937, yang beralih ke peralatan makan dan pelapis perak. Anda dapat menemukan contoh pisau saku serta peralatan makan miliknya dengan cap Battle Axe.

Merek Battle Axe yang lebih baru, sekitar tahun 1975-1990 digunakan oleh sekelompok pria yang spesialisasinya adalah mengimpor & menjual pisau peringatan berkualitas baik dan beberapa pisau produksi.Ini adalah pisau edisi terbatas batch kecil dan biasanya bersambung. Mereka akan datang dengan desain, dan sebuah pabrik di Solingen, Jerman memproduksinya. Mereka diperkirakan dibuat oleh pabrik Frederich Olbertz di Solingen. Pisau menggunakan baja karbon 1095 dan bahan pegangan berkualitas baik.

Rupanya, anggota kelompok yang berbeda merancang & membeli pisau yang berbeda, sehingga banyak kolaborasi nama yang berbeda pada pisau.

JW Cupang dari Winston-Salem NC, Tommy Shouse dari Winston-Salem, & George Smith dari Hardin Wholesale yang kemudian menjadi partner di Blue Grass Cutlery.

Jim-Lucu Anda harus menyebutkan Bulldog dan Fight'n Rooster- Saya telah membaca (tidak dikonfirmasi) bahwa ketiga merek diproduksi di pabrik yang sama di Solingen. Bernard Levine berpikir bahwa Frederich Olbertz membuat Battle Axe, jadi mungkin mereka membuat ketiga merek tersebut. Sterling Buster adalah anggota IKC, dan mungkin dapat mengkonfirmasi aspek Fight'n Rooster. Buzz Parker mungkin bisa mengkonfirmasi cerita Bulldog Brand.


Nasib Eropa Lama yang Selalu Berubah

Waktu terasa kejam ketika sejarah dipertanyakan. Sangat mudah untuk menulis tentang hilangnya satu budaya dan munculnya budaya lain. Tetapi bagi orang-orang di zaman yang jauh itu, segalanya berbeda. Ini adalah proses yang membutuhkan waktu ratusan tahun untuk diselesaikan, dan orang-orang primitif yang lebih lemah sering dihadapkan dengan penghilangan dan asimilasi, yang tidak pernah merupakan hal yang menyenangkan. Namun demikianlah cara hidup zaman dahulu yang dicirikan oleh migrasi massal orang-orang yang berteknologi maju, yang inovasi dan keterampilannya seringkali membawa perubahan mendadak dan dramatis dalam kehidupan budaya yang telah berkembang secara damai selama ratusan tahun. Dan begitulah penyebaran cepat orang Indo-Eropa membawa perubahan yang tak terbendung bagi Eropa Lama. Budaya Neolitik asli harus menyatu dengan penjajah, berusaha melawan, atau menghilang sama sekali. Maka masa depan ditempa dan disemen, satu abad pada suatu waktu.

Gambar atas: Sedikit yang diketahui tentang budaya Kapak Pertempuran Zaman Neolitik, tetapi para arkeolog dan cendekiawan terus menerapkan teknologi baru untuk mengumpulkan gambaran yang lebih lengkap. (Gambar, Kapak Batu di Museum Sejarah Lokal Turov). Sumber: Grigory Bruev


Kapak Perang - Sejarah

Oleh William McPeak

Kapak berporos telah ada sejak 6000 SM, baik dalam penggunaan damai maupun suka berperang. Yang disebut budaya kapak perang (3200 hingga 1800 SM) meluas ke sebagian besar Eropa utara dari Zaman Batu akhir hingga Zaman Perunggu awal. Kepala kapak pertama terbuat dari batu dan menggunakan pegangan kayu yang disebut haft membuat penggunaan kapak lebih mudah. Teknik pemasangan pegangan meliputi wedging, flanging, winging, dan socketing. Pengeboran membutuhkan poros yang dibor dengan lubang untuk memasukkan batu berbentuk melalui poros atau di atasnya. Banyak mineral berbatu digunakan untuk kepala, dan ujungnya diasah di kedua sisi dan miring ganda.
[iklan_teks]

Dengan ditemukannya logam, muncul berbagai pekerjaan untuk mengakomodasi kapak untuk berperang. Dari wajah yang agak tumpul dalam bentuk persegi panjang, kepala kapak mengambil tepi depan yang agak cembung dan familiar, dan meruncing ke belakang ke pantat yang tumpul. Pada Zaman Besi (1000 SM), kepala kapak besi berbentuk baji adalah bentuk standar, dibor di dekat pantat untuk dipasang. Untuk peperangan, kapak perang paling efisien dalam desain yang ringan. Sumbu dengan tepi depan dan belakang ganda muncul di beberapa budaya kuno tetapi, secara realistis, terlalu berat untuk efisiensi nyata.

Francisca: Kapak Perang Frank

Kepala tepi miring tunggal segera dikembangkan. Tidak seperti alat pertanian pendahulunya, kapak perang dimaksudkan untuk memotong daging, bukan kayu. Legiun Romawi membawa beliung standar dengan ujung pendek di kepala 19 inci dan tangkai 30 inci. Pada abad kelima, kapak perang dengan kepala sempit berbentuk baji, biasanya melengkung datar atau sisi atas berbentuk S dengan tepi cembung yang agak datar dan miring kira-kira tiga inci diputar ke belakang di tumit dalam sapuan cekung di bagian bawah, muncul di Eropa utara di tangan kaum Frank. Kapak ini disebut francisca (dari kata Latin untuk Frank). Frank membentuk konfederasi Jerman barat yang akan berkembang menjadi kerajaan multipart di bawah penguasa Merovingian dan kemudian sebuah kekaisaran di bawah penguasa Karoling pada abad ketujuh dan kedelapan, khususnya Charlemagne.

Francisca digunakan baik sebagai senjata lempar dan pertempuran jarak dekat. Sejarawan Romawi Procopius menggambarkan penggunaannya sebagai senjata lempar oleh kaum Frank: “Setiap orang membawa pedang dan perisai dan kapak. Sekarang kepala besi senjata ini tebal dan sangat tajam di kedua sisinya sementara gagang kayunya sangat pendek. Dan mereka terbiasa selalu melemparkan kapak ini pada satu sinyal pada serangan pertama dan dengan demikian menghancurkan perisai musuh dan membunuh orang-orangnya.” Procopius menekankan bahwa Frank melemparkan kapak mereka segera sebelum pertempuran tangan kosong, dengan tujuan menghancurkan perisai dan mengganggu garis musuh sambil melukai atau membunuh prajurit musuh. Berat kepala dan panjang pendeknya memungkinkan kapak dilempar dengan momentum yang cukup besar ke jarak efektif sekitar 40 kaki. Bahkan jika ujung bilah tidak mengenai sasaran, berat kepala besi dapat menyebabkan cedera serius.

Fitur lain dari francisca adalah kecenderungannya untuk memantul secara tak terduga saat mengenai tanah karena bobotnya, bentuk kepalanya yang unik, kurangnya keseimbangan, dan sedikit lengkungan pada tangkainya, sehingga sulit bagi pemain bertahan untuk memblokir. Itu bisa memantul di kaki lawan atau melawan perisai mereka dan melalui barisan. Frank memanfaatkan ini dengan melemparkan francisca dalam tembakan untuk membingungkan, mengintimidasi, dan mengacaukan garis musuh sebelum atau selama serangan untuk memulai pertempuran jarak dekat.

Fransiska, setelah mengalami perubahan panjang tepi, menjadi populer di kalangan masyarakat Jermanik lainnya seperti Anglo-Saxon, dan berjalan lebih jauh ke utara untuk menjadi pola dasar bagi ekspedisi Viking. The Vikings extended the francisca ax edge downward a further inch, with the underside at the heel cutting briefly back horizontally and then turning up into a deep concave arc. Called the bearded ax, the weapon would undergo changes such as sweeping into an arc at the heel of the edge. Scandinavian smiths had been working iron-edged weapons, and they usually made the ax head of iron and forged the edge into steel to make it a superior cutting face.

The Norse Battle-Ax

Another Norse style of the ninth century returned to the full arc of convex edge, tapering both the top and undersides of the head backward in a concave sweep to the haft, sometimes known as the shaved ax. This was probably the earliest broadax form and enabled a more effective sweeping cut rather than a simple chop. Although there were variations, the broadax continued to be developed from a basic one- or two-pound weapon with a haft of about 1½ feet of ash or oak. This was the common form of the European single-hand battle-ax thereafter. The Anglo-Saxon invasions of the fifth century and Viking raids from the late eighth and ninth centuries brought these early forms of the battle-ax to Britain.

By ad 1000, the Danes were popularizing a shaved ax design with as much as 12 inches of curved blade but again with the inside edges deeply concave. This was the Danish ax, with a weight of as much as four pounds and requiring a longer haft of three or four feet for both hands. In 1066, the English met the Norman invaders near Hastings with their primary professional infantry wielding a Danish battle-ax called the English long ax, which was essentially an early poleax for two-hand use.

The Ax vs Armor

The progression of improvements in edged weapons followed the improvement in armor in general. By the late 14th century, plate armor of surface-hardened steel was so resilient that steel sword points and most concussion weapons grazed off its curved surfaces. Although defined as an impact or concussion weapon, the battle-ax had an advantage over others of its class, the war hammer and the various designs of the mace and flail. The battle-ax was also an edged weapon—a powerful one. The various lengths and arcing edges of its head could inflict some massive damage when striking well. The popularity of the Danish long ax came from the force of its sweeping and cutting blows. A horseman had even better striking ability.

A Viking-made bearded ax, circa ad 1000.

Although the sword still reigned as the knightly weapon, by the 12th century a variety of single-handed battle-axes were adopted by the noble class of Europe as a horseman’s weapon. Manuscript miniature paintings of the medieval period show many a battle-ax cleaving into the helmeted head of a mounted knightly opponent. King Stephen of England took up the battle-ax after his sword was broken at the Battle of Lincoln in 1141. Richard the Lionheart was supposedly a famous wielder of the battle-ax. Thirteenth-century chroniclers made the point of noting the use of the battle-ax by the nobility. James, the second earl of Douglas of Scotland, son of the great patriot James the Black Douglas, used the battle-ax, although he perished at the Battle of Otterburn in 1388. Later, French marshal Breton Bertrand du Guesclin and his companion in arms Olivier de Clisson, future constable of France, both used the battle-ax.

By the late 14th century, the noble knight put aside the battle-ax as a backup to the sword, which had undergone improvements with more tempering and narrowing of the pointed blade. Then came surface-hardened steel. With steel armor to contend with, many returned to the usefulness of the battle-ax. By this time, a basic horseman’s ax evolved with the functional need of a longer haft to use while sitting astride a horse, where one could get the most out of it. The full convex edge and swept concave head of the broadax could be used to best advantage by performing the so-called draw cut on horseback. The draw cut was an arcing overhead stroke of the curved saber blade used by the light cavalries of Islam. The result was a deadly efficient follow-through. The forward momentum on horseback made the damage that much more efficient. The horseman’s ax had a haft of up to three feet, usually requiring two hands, and a hole bored at the butt of the haft for inserting a leather thong for carrying at the saddle and winding at the wrist.

Building a More Practical Ax

In the early 14th century, the battle-ax head was further modified—but at the opposite end. The butt of the battle-ax head was flared slightly out in a small hammer-like shape for more utility. Archers carried a short ax with a hammer-like butt to pound in and sharpen stakes for a trench palisade, and it was often preferred to carrying the usual short sword. Beginning in the late 14th century, the battle-ax began to appear adorned with butt-end alternatives similar to the war hammer to help puncture that impenetrable armor. The butt of the head was extended with a spike of up to about six inches, which was used as another puncturing option and counterbalance. A well-placed and powerful hit with the spike could puncture, but the ax’s worked steel edge could put a bigger slice in armor on its own. A further option was a vertical, four-sided spike of six inches extending above the center of the head. This rather awkward stabbing weapon was used mainly for delivering the coup de grace to a fallen opponent. Although the back spike became shorter, the vertical spike fell out of favor in comparison with battle-axes and the horseman’s ax.

A modern-day reproduction of the s-shaped francisca battle-ax.

More practical additions were at hand. By the early 14th century, some battle-ax heads appeared with short, downward extensions from the head and along the haft to further secure it. This idea was furthered by reinforcing the haft by riveting metal bands called langets, extending partially or fully down both sides of the length of the haft. The langets were a means of protecting the battle-ax head from being sheared from the haft. A more effective solution to that outcome was to put the ax head on an all-iron or steel haft. This appeared in cylindrical and polygonal forms around the middle of the 15th century. Although heavier, the all-metal ax was also efficient. For protecting the hand against glancing and sliding blows, a small metal disk guard was added at the top of the ax grip. Something smiliar in larger form regularly appeared on the two-handed poleax.

“My Kingdom for a Horse!”

At least one king favored the battle-ax to such extent as to gamble his kingdom on it. By the later 15th century, after 100 years of fighting between England and France, a civil war erupted in England between two houses of the Plantagenets and Lancastrians with a red rose symbol and the challenging Yorkists with a white rose. This was the War of the Roses. For more than 20 years, bloody battles pitting relatives against one another continued after the Yorkists effectively took power in 1461. In 1483 Richard III seized power, becoming perhaps the most reviled monarch in English history.

Revisionists, including William Shakespeare, made a concerted effort to discredit Richard. In his play Henry VI, Part 3, Shakespeare has Richard ready to do anything to grab the throne: “Or hew my way out with a bloody axe.” The ax reference is relevant for Richard because evidence showed that from youth he practiced particularly with the battle-ax—so much so that his right arm was supposedly much more muscular than his left, as was his right shoulder and back. This probably gave the impression that he was deformed—thus the hunchback tradition.

In August 1485 it all came to a head at Bosworth Field, where Richard was defeated by Henry Tudor and a large force of Welsh archers and French mercenaries. Richard had already successfully intercepted Henry’s reserve and after the first shock had entered a swirling melee. He cleaved his way with surprising speed toward the frightened Henry, who was surrounded by bodyguards, before his horse became mired in the mud and the king threw down the ax and drew his sword for better reach. He was finally surrounded by a great mass of Welsh spearmen and cut down. Richard died bravely on the battlefield, crying out: “Treason! Treason!”—not, as Shakespeare had it: “A horse! a horse! my kingdom for a horse!”

Replaced by the Sword and the Gun

Both all-metal and wooden haft battle-axes moved into the 16th century but were increasingly upstaged by more a versatile array of swords: infantry and cavalry sabers, curve-bladed short swords, and broad swords. But the all-steel battle-ax, usually without the vertical spike, did enjoy some splendor in the art of chiseled grips and engraved and etched blades for parade and ceremonial uses during the 16th and early 17th centuries. The battle-ax was still a popular secondary weapon in eastern Europe. Ornately chiseled all-steel battle-axes were popular cavalry weapons with the Ottoman Turks in the 16th century and into the 18th century in the Middle East and India. There they were called the tabar and had more curvature on the edge than Western designs. But for Europe as a whole, practicality centered on the battle-ax transformation into two-handed forms—the many pole arms and staff weapons with ax heads: poleax, Scottish lochaber ax, Russian bardiche, and various longer halberds.

Similar weapons were still a choice on 17th and 18th century battlefields, although firearms now ruled the day. In North America, trade axes with the Viking head became the new weapon of choice for Native Americans, replacing their wood and stone tomahawks. Hand-to-hand combat with the tomahawk would by necessity become a skill developed by frontiersmen during the French and Indian and Revolutionary Wars. The U.S. Navy’s boarding ax of the late 18th century looked similar to a short bearded ax, with three or more sharp teeth at the bottom back side of the edge to rake up and clear downed rigging and burned wreckage. By the 19th century, the typical broadax tool was used in camps and on battlefields by sappers and miners and at sea for onboard tasks. In modern times it has chiefly been used for engineering tasks.

Of all the impact and concussion weapons of military history, the ax remains an important tool, whether on the battlefield, in the forest, at throwing competitions, or simply in the backyard for the more peaceable pursuit of gardening.


Battle of Bad Axe

The Battle of Bad Axe was the culmination of the Black Hawk War. The Black Hawk war was a military conflict between the Sauk, Meskwaki (Fox), and the United States Military, led by General Atkinson. The conflict began in 1832 and took place in northwestern Illinois and southwestern Wisconsin. The Native Americans, led by Black Hawk, crossed the Mississippi River into Illinois. The Native Americans moved across the Mississippi in order to settle land that their tribes used to settle.

The Battle of Bad Axe, also known as the Bad Axe Massacre, was the final fight in the Black Hawk War. It was a two day encounter. The reason this battle is also known as a massacre is due to the fact that the United States Army and the steamboat Warrior slaughtered the Sauk and Fox tribes that were trying to retreat across the Mississippi River and surrender.

The Black Hawk War was fought throughout Southern Wisconsin between the Sauk and Fox Native Americans, called the British Band, and the United States Military. The fighting took place between May and August 1832. The Native Americans were led by Chief Black Hawk and the United States Military in the area was under the direction of Brigadier General Henry Atkinson. The war was caused over land dispute between the government and the Native Americans.

After losing the Battle of Wisconsin Heights on July 21, 1832, near present day Sauk City, Wisconsin, the Native Americans retreated to the west. They made it to the east bank of the Mississippi River near present day Victory, WI on August 1, 1832, and this was the first day of the Battle of Bad Axe. The name of the battle comes from the close proximity to the mouth of the Bad Axe River.

On the first day of the battle, the steamboat Warrior was on the Mississippi River just off shore of the fleeing Native Americans. The Native Americans, seeking to surrender, raised the white flag to the steamboat. After some miscommunication, the Warrior opened fire on the Natives on shore. After several hours of fighting, 23 Sauk were killed. That night, Black Hawk made a move to meet up with Chippewa in the north. Instead, realizing the United States Military was much closer than they thought, he took a small band of troops and set up a rear guard to distract the military.

August 2, 1832 was the second day of the Battle of Bad Axe. This day is where the name the Bad Axe Massacre comes from. The first attack of the day was the United States Military spies encountering Chief Black Hawk and his rear guard. Fourteen Sauk were lost while one spy suffered critical wounds. The rear guard moved towards the mouth of the Bad Axe River in a diversion attempt to lead the military away from the rest of the Sauk and Fox people. This diversion was partially successful. It took three fifths of the military with them. The remaining two fifths found the rest of the Sauk and Fox people. These two fifths pushed the Native Americans closer to the river where the steamboat Warrior was waiting. The Native Americans were forced into the water and were caught between the Warrior and the military. Only seventy of the four hundred Native Americans made it across the river. The rest were killed in the water or on the banks of the Mississippi. These seventy were captured or killed by the Sioux, long time enemies of the Sauk and who had sided with the United States.

Black Hawk was not looking for violence or bloodshed when he crossed the river. Several attempts were made at peaceful talks on his part. One was made before any conflict had officially begun. Black Hawk recalled the first attempt in his autobiography. “I received news that three or four hundred white men on horse-back had been seen about eight miles off. I immediately started three young men with a white flag to meet them and conduct them to our camp, that we might hold a council with them and descend Rock river again. I also directed them, in case the whites had encamped, to return, and I would go and see them. After this party had started I sent five young men to see what might take place. The first party went to the camp of the whites, and were taken prisoners. The last party had not proceeded far before they saw about twenty men coming toward them at full gallop. They stopped, and, finding that the whites were coming toward them in such a warlike attitude, they turned and retreated, but were pursued, and two of them overtaken and killed. The others made their escape.”[1] This was the very early beginnings of the Black Hawk war. The conflict occurred at Dixon’s Ferry and is known as the Battle of Stillman’s Run or the Battle of Sycamore Creek. Even though Black Hawks goal wasn’t met, this battle is still considered a win for him and the first of the Black Hawk war. Although Black Hawk lost his messengers, his braves managed to make Major Stillman retreat.

After several months and other engagements, Black Hawk was pressed by the military into a retreat from Wisconsin Heights. They made their retreat to the Mississippi River at a stream called Bad Axe. This is where the Black Hawk war ultimately ended. Another attempt at peace was made just before the Battle of Bad Axe occurred. Black Hawk went for his white flag with all intention of surrendering. “We had been here but a little while before we saw a steamboat (“Warrior”) coming. I told my braves not to shoot, as I intended going on board, so that we might save our women and children. I knew the captain (Throckmorton) and was determined to give myself up to him. I then sent for my white flag. While the messenger was gone, I took a small piece of white cotton and put it on a pole, and called to the captain of the boat, and told him to send his little canoe ashore and let me come aboard. The people, on board asked whether we were Sacs or Winnebago’s. I told a Winnebago to tell them that we were Sacs, and wanted to give ourselves up! A Winnebago on the boat called out to us “to run a/id hide, that the whites were going to shoot!” About this time one of my braves had jumped into the river, bearing a white flag to the boat, when another sprang in after him and brought him to the shore. The firing then commenced from the boat, which was returned by my braves and continued for some time. Very few of my people were hurt after the first fire, having succeeded in getting behind old logs and trees, which shielded them from the enemy’s fire.”[1]. As seen by these two excerpts, the military was not looking for any form a peaceful ending to this. They wanted the complete destruction of the Sauk that had crossed the Mississippi. Even though the Sauk were trying to flee back across the Mississippi River. “Early in the morning a party of whites being in advance of the army, came upon our people, who were attempting to cross the Mississippi. They tried to give themselves up the whites paid no attention to their entreaties, but commenced slaughtering them. In a little while the whole army arrived. Our braves, but few in number, finding that the enemy paid no regard to age or sex, and seeing that they were murdering helpless women and little children, determined to fight until they were killed. As many women as could, commenced swimming the Mississippi, with their children on their backs. A number of them were drowned, and some shot before they could reach the opposite shore.”[1] In order to try to protect his people, Black Hawk made an attempt to lead General Atkinson away from where his the Sauk were crossing the Mississippi. “Black Hawk, it will be remembered, with about twenty braves had been endeavoring to lead the army of Gen. Atkinson up the river, and had succeeded. Hence, he was several miles up the Mississippi during the real engagement, and heard of it through the Indians who had escaped, as before stated. He very justly termed this so-called battle of the Bad Axe, (because it occurred near the mouth of that small stream), a massacre. Gov. Ford estimated the Indian loss at 150 killed and as many drowned in the river, and fifty prisoners.”[2] This massacre on the east side of the Mississippi as well as a band of Sioux that slaughtered and of Black Hawks people that made it across the Mississippi meant the end of the Black Hawk war.

Colonel Joseph Dickson recounted his experiences of the Black Hawk war in a personal narrative. The bulk of his writing tells about the Battle of Wisconsin Heights and the Battle of Bad Axe. The final two battles in the war. “In the month of May, when on the first intelligence of hostilities by the Indians, I joined a mounted company of volunteers raised at Platteville. At the organization [of the company] I was elected orderly sergeant, John H. Rountree, captain and in that capacity I served one month, when in consequence of the absence of the captain, I was chosen to command the company and then served about one month. Then, by the order of Colonel Dodge, I took command of a spy company, and was in front of the army during the chases to Rock River, Fort Winnebago, and to the Wisconsin Heights and at the Wisconsin Heights I with my spy company commenced the attack on a band of Indians who were kept in the rear of the retreating Indian army and chased them to the main body of Indians, when we were fired at several times, but without injury, and I returned to the advancing army without loss or injury to my command. After the battle of the Wisconsin Heights, and the army was supplied with provisions, we again pursued the Indian trail, and I took the lead with my company and followed to the Bad Ax by command of General Atkinson. At the Battle of Bad Ax, I discovered, the evening before the battle, the trail of Black Hawk with a party of about forty Indians, to have left the main trail and gone up the river, which fact I reported to the Commanding General. On the next morning, I with my command encountered and engaged a company of Indians at a place near to where I had the evening before discovered the trail of Black Hawk and his party. During the battle that ensued, my command killed fourteen Indians and after a short time, say half an hour’s engagement, General Dodge, with his command, and General Atkinson with his regular army, arrived at the place where I had engaged this party consisting of about forty Indians and about the time of their arrival, we had killed and dispersed this band of Indians. The main body of the enemy had gone down the river after they entered the river bottom. I pursued with my command, passing General Henry with his command formed on the Mississippi Bottom I crossed the slough, and engaged a squad of Indians, who were making preparations to cross the river after which we were fired upon and returned the fire of several bands or squads of Indians, before the army arrived. After the battle was over, I was taken with others on board of a steamer which came along soon after, to Prairie du Chien, where I was properly cared for, and my wounds received suitable attention. Since which, I have spent a short period in Illinois, and the balance of the time to the present I have devoted myself to agricultural pursuits on my farm, four miles southwest of Platteville.” [3]. This manuscript gives a military soldiers perspective of the war. It shows the enthusiasm of some of the military personal in the war.


Tomahawks & Hatches: Part 1 of 3 – Early History of Axes and Battle Axes.

Flint stone hand axe 300,000 years old

Axes were among the earliest tools of man found in the Ice and Stone Age. A lump of flint was hacked into chips to make a hatchet the size of a man’s hand. These early impliments were used for chopping, cutting, scraping, and sawing (some had jagged edges) and were found throughout England, Europe, Asia, and North America – over a hundred thousand years ago. As man advanced to making pottery, sewing clothing, and tilling grains, he still used stone, bone, and wood for his tools.

Stone Age Handaxes

Approximately 10,000 years ago, copper was discovered as an easy metal to melt. When mixed with tin, it was found to be hard enough to make tools, including knives and hatchets. This mixture was called bronze and is referred to as the bronze age which lasted until the discovery of iron, approximately five thousand years later. The earliest found smelted iron was 5,000 BC in Mesopotamia and 3,000 BC in India and Egypt.

These early uses of iron were mainly ceremonial and too expensive (eight times the value of gold) for everyday use including military. Therefore, bronze was still common until the manufacturing of iron became cheap enough to be used for tools and weapons. This occurred approximately 1,200 BC which became known as the Iron Age. Later still, steel, which is a hardened iron, was in use in China at around 400 BC and India around 200 BC. Alexander the Great, during his conquest of India, at one point received from his conquest not gold, but thirty pounds of steel. However, steel was not common in Europe until medieval times.

Flake, Greenstone, Hollow-edged axes, Roundstone axes

Hollow edged axe by Gransfors

Round Stone Axe c/o Gransfors

Stone-Age Axes were the first axes made of flint and stone and were held by the hand. These included from earliest on: core axe, flake axe (large flake chipped from a core), Lihult axe (roughly hewn greenstone axe – igneous rock containing feldspar and hornblende – of western Sweden), thin-butted axe (from flint for use as a working axe), round stone axe (greenstone axe with rounded profile), and hollow-edged axe (with a concave blade).

What has been called the Battle Axe Culture (3200 – 1800 BC) were stone shaft holed axes that were mounted on the end of shafts similar to later hatchets and axes. These were not made of flint, but various stones, and though the name indicates they were carried in war, they were more for status or ceremonial usages. It is believed that the shaft hole was made so small that it could not be attached to a sufficiently strong handle necessary for battle. These included from the earliest on:

Polygonal Axe, Double-headed battle Axe, Boat Axe

Polygonal axe c/o Gransfors

Double-headed Battle Axe c/o Gransfors

1. Polygonal axe (3,400-3,000 BC) which included a flared edge, an arched butt, and angled body with grooves and ridges. Usually of greenstone, it was hammered out and polished over the whole surface. This axe was an early example of the later Central European copper axes. 2. Double-headed battle axe (3400-2900 BC) mainly of Germany and Denmark. It had a flared edge that was common in later types of double-headed axes along with a flared butt. They were made from hard and homogeneous stones such as porphyry and so too were finely polished. 3. Boat axe is the old name for the shaft axe of modern use. They were single edged with a flared butt – similar in shape and design of a spear head.

Socket or Celt Axe, Socket Axe Head, Palstave Axe, Copper Axe

Socketed or Celt Axe c/o Gransfors

Socket Axe Head c/o Gransfors

Bronze Age Axes (2,000 – 500 AD for northern Europe) were often copies of stone axes. With the discovery of the copper and tin mixture, stone axes gave way to bronze with a head of either pure copper or bronze. The bronze axe was cast in molds which enabled the design to be copied in mass. These included from earliest on: 1. Socketed or Celt axe which had a wedge shaped head and no shaft hole. Instead the handle was fixed into a socket at the butt end. It was made hollow so the handle of the shaft was inserted into the head. It proved to be a functional working axe as the handle was often quite long. Later types were smaller with a flared edge. 2. Palstave ax (1500 – 1000 BC) had a narrow butt which inserted into a split wooden handle. The blade was flared and the sides were often decorated with spiral or angular patterns. It was mounted in the split end of a wooden handle and tied into place with leather straps.

Iron Age Axe Heads

Iron age axes (from around 500 BC in Europe) were basically the same as bronze and stone axes reproduced in iron. However, the new materials and designs including the strength and thickness of metals, led the appearance of the axes to change gradually. Non-shaft-hole axes disappeared and were replaced by axes with a hole for a handle. The heads also became larger with broader or ‘bearded’ blades.

Axes Used in Battle. The first axes used in battle were the same that were used in everyday life. Though fiction in the action ‘barbarian’ genre, such as the popular Conan the Barbarian series, used specific axes for battle welded by muscular warrior types, in reality, those who were called to war were ordinary tribesmen, mainly fathers and sons, who grabbed whatever tool was available when battling opposing tribes or kingdoms. It was only later, around 400 AD, with the advent of iron, that the focus shifted to developing specific axes for fighting.

Franziska axe was an early, smaller axe similar to the modern hatchets, that was specifically designed for battle, however it was also useful in the hunt. It was first used by the Franks and later Teutonic tribes and Goths from around 400 – 500 AD. The axe heads were thick and sharp with a distinct short handle. It was effective mostly as a hand weapon in close combat, yet its design allowed it to be thrown as a projectile. However, most combatants most likely kept a firm grip on their prized weapon so as not to be left standing unarmed. When thrown, it would frequently be at a distance of ten or twelve paces from the enemy, yet could still be deadly at larger distances. Because of its unusual shape, when correctly thrown, a Franziska rotated a number of times in the air before the axe blade hit its target. It rotated once at four to five meters, twice at eight to nine meters, and three times at a distance of twelve to thirteen meters. Though carried into battle, these axes were very useful as a projectile during the hunt. When game was spotted, it could, like the spear, be thrown quickly and quietly from a distance with great precision. And once thrown, even if the target was missed, it could be retrieved without threat of attack from an enemy.

Bayeux Tapestry featuring Viking Battle Axe

Scandinavia Battle Axe became popular during the Viking Age (800-1100 AD). Nordic smiths developed these axes with longer handles and thinner blades, making the axe head extra light so as to be readily carried into battle and not wear out the warrior through use. This type of axe was commonly in use during the Battle of Hastings in 1066 England as both Franks and Anglo Saxon Housecarls carried them into battle (as documented in the Bayeux Tapestry).

Light axes on long shafts, known as Hunganian Fokos axes, were carried by 10 th century Hungarian warriors The Bulgarians also used a similar design. From the 15th century on, shepherd’s axes appeared in Europe from modern day Romania. The axe was used as a versatile tool that served as a small axe, hammer, and walking stick. These axes became inseparable from shepherds throughout Europe which included heavy, personalized decorative straps.

Predecessor to the Hatchet, during the European Middle Ages and Renaissance (11 th to the 16 th centuries), was a small axe with a short handle which was often carried on the belt. They were more refined than its earlier model – Franziska axes. Included among these shorter, hatchet-like axes were throwing axes made entirely of iron in use by the late Middle Ages. The handle was around 25 centimeters long and ended in a point. The butt also had a sharp spike and the cutting edge was around 16 centimeters long.

Large Battle Axes were used by knights of armor who fought on foot. Often these larger axes had the butt end in an iron spike and the hand was protected by an iron plate on the handle. Fifteenth century knights in Germany and France used heavy battle axes which were intended to crush the opponent’s metal armor. They had a shorter handle and more of a blunt edge so to pound the opponent to submission.

Bearded axe, half-moon, bardiche, and halberd all were the common name for large battle axes with a broad long head on a long handle. They had an elongated edge with a sabre-like curve called a beard. The lower part of the blade was fixed to the handle with a rivet. The handle was often about 1.4 meters long. Some models had the front part of the axe blade shaped into a hand guard. Many varieties had one or more points or hooks at the butt or protruding from the top of the blade. These bearded halberds had a deadly function in battle when knights of armor met on the battlefield. Later on, particularly in the seventeenth century and right up until the early eighteenth century, they had a more symbolic role carried by a staff sergeant of a particular platoon or company within a regiment.

Executioner’s Broad Axe gradually replaced the sword as the weapon of choice for beheadings during the latter part of the Middle Ages right up until the 19 th century (Sweden still beheaded with the broad axe right up to 1910). Though England and most European countries implemented the broad axe during executions, the French still preferred a heavy sword to lob off one’s head.

Axe declined to the sword in popularity, especially as steel swords developed and became the choice of weapon for military officers. However, ordinary citizens and peasants continued to use the axe at times of unrest or in self-defense against bandits as it was cheap and easily accessible.

Eighteenth Century Military Use of axes was limited to a small axe or hatchet worn on the belt, carried mainly by huntsmen rifle corps (such as German Jaeger units and American ranger outfits) also some light infantry companies including the American Royal Riflemen and British rifle companies. Halberds were common throughout Europe and used during the American French and Indian War and American Revolution – however mainly for symbolic use.

Tomahawks of North American were small axes introduced to North America by European settlers and explorers. Before the arrival of Europeans, Native Americans lived in a Stone Age in which only flint and stones were used for tools and weapons they had never seen iron objects. War clubs were often carried into battle which were bludgeoning weapons such as heavy bones or wooden clubs with stone heads latched at the end. When Europeans first began to explore the New World of the Americas, ‘trade axes’, similar to small European axes worn at the belt, played a major role in trade with the natives – garnishing mainly furs and pelts for shipment back to Europe. These axes were given the collective name of tomahawks.

The word tomahawk either came from the Lenape tribe’s word tamahak, meaning ‘cutting tool’, or from the Powhatan or Algonquian native tongues. These small steel axes, common among the Europeans, had quickly gained favor with the Native Americans for hunting and domestic work. Though the war club continued to be an effective close quarter weapon among Native Americans, these small axes gained importance in battle. Tomahawks, which could be thrown, were part of a long-established European craft and came to be one of the leading symbols of pioneers and Native Americans in the new continent. Colonists propagated a false image of the tomahawk as being solely unique to an ‘Indian’ culture as these axes were so heavily traded among the native population. Tomahawks were frequently carried by the original settlers and ‘mountain men’. Centuries later, Hollywood films continued to promote these small, hand held throwing axes as an invention of the American frontier.

Steel Head Tomahawk

Tomahawks and hatchets were light in weight and particularly useful to the military, could be effectively used with just one hand. Both Native Americans and white settlers, including militiamen and later American, British, and German Infantrymen (mainly rifle and light infantry companies) attached these light weight tomahawks to their belts. They could be most effective in close up hand to hand combat or thrown at the enemy from a distance. Scalping became common in North America as bounties were paid to Native Americans by both sides of European combatants. These scalps, the removal of a portion of the enemy’s hair (dead or alive) became proof of casualties inflicted on the enemy and money or trade was paid in return. However, unlike romantic novels and the movie industry, mostly scalps were removed with a sharp knife and rarely (only when a knife was unavailable) was a tomahawk used. Native American tomahawks were also used in celebrations and ceremonies.

Atkinson, Alice Minerva. The European Beginnings of American History: An Introduction to the History of the United States. 1912: Ginn & Company, Boston, MA.

Web site: Gransfors Bruks AB Sweden. www.gransforsbruk.com/en/axe-knowledge/the-history-of-the-axe/ Gransfors Bruks built a business based around handcrafted axes and axe expertise. The axe forge is open to the public. In addition to the forge and factory shop, there is an axe museum that has many ancient axes through the centuries on display.

Holmes, Sir Richard. Weapon: A Visual History of Arms and Armour. 2010: Dorling Kindersley, London, UK.

Grant, David. Tomahawks: Traditional to Tactical. 2007: Paladin Press, Boulder, Colorado.

Grose, Francis. Military Antiquities Respecting a History of the English Army. 1801: Oxford University, England.


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