Kereta Api London dan Croydon

Kereta Api London dan Croydon


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Kereta Api London & Croydon disahkan oleh Parlemen pada tahun 1835. Jalur sembilan mil membentang dari Persimpangan Corbetts Lane di Kereta Api London & Greenwich ke Croydon dibuka pada tahun 1839. Total biaya pembangunan jalur tersebut adalah £615.160 (£70.240 per mil ).

Sejak September 1841, Kereta Api London & Brighton mulai menggunakan jalur London & Croydon. Lima tahun kemudian London & Brighton bergabung dengan London & Croydon untuk membentuk London, Brighton & South Coast Railway.


Kereta Api London dan Croydon - Sejarah

Upaya Mengemudikan Kereta Api dengan Tekanan Udara

Meskipun lokomotiflah yang membuat kereta api - yang sampai sekarang hanya diwakili oleh beberapa trem tambang batu bara - sukses secara komersial, ada di antara para perintis yang bertanya-tanya apakah kereta api tidak dapat bekerja dengan cepat dan efisien tanpa menggunakan lokomotif sama sekali. Awalnya, lokomotif diperkirakan tidak akan mampu mendaki bukit. Brunel cukup siap untuk menemukan bahwa dia harus memutar kereta ke tepian yang panjang melalui Terowongan Kotak, meskipun dia berharap mesin pengukur lebarnya akan menghasilkan tenaga yang besar. Dalam acara tersebut, mereka terbukti sama dengan pendakian, dan kabel tidak pernah digunakan di Box, karena mereka berada di beberapa tanjakan lain di negara ini. Lubang sembur yang telah ditenggelamkan Brunel dari puncak bukit ke dalam terowongan diperlukan, bagaimanapun juga, untuk ventilasi, lubang-lubang itu membantu membersihkan asap yang menurut para pesimis akan mencekik penumpang di terowongan yang saat itu merupakan terowongan terpanjang di dunia.

Asap adalah keberatan kedua untuk lokomotif. Mungkin tidak lebih buruk dari debu di jalan, dan tentu saja tidak seburuk lumpur, tetapi kesan bahwa rel kereta api itu kotor. Itu menceritakan, kepada, tentang api yang bepergian. Petani takut ricks mereka akan terbakar oleh percikan api dari mesin yang lewat. Orang-orang di kota takut akan bahaya yang sama terhadap rumah mereka. London berusaha untuk menjaga lokomotif di teluk jika kereta api harus datang dalam batas-batasnya. Benar, dia menggunakan mesin di jalur pertamanya, Kereta Api London dan Greenwich, yang sebagian dibuka pada akhir tahun 1830, tetapi dia mengerjakan jalur keduanya, Kereta Api Blackwall, yang menyentuh Kota, dengan kabel. Bahkan dianggap perlu, ketika jalur Birmingham dibuka untuk lokomotif yang akan lepas landas di Camden dan kereta api masuk dan keluar dari Euston.

Berliku adalah praktik tambang batu bara lama dan mungkin agak canggung sehingga para insinyur segera mencoba memikirkan cara yang lebih baik untuk menjalankan jalur tanpa lokomotif. Meskipun lokomotif telah menunjukkan bahwa mereka praktis, mereka tidak sepenuhnya populer pada saat mereka yang tertarik pada lalu lintas kuda tua di jalan siap untuk menyebarkan cerita tentang mereka.

Ada kekuatan selain uap air dan udara telah berhasil digunakan oleh manusia selama berabad-abad. Air tidak pernah digunakan untuk mengerjakan rel kereta api kecuali dalam contoh beberapa jalur tebing, yang benar-benar lift, di mana satu mobil, ditimbang dengan tangki penuh, menarik yang lain dengan tangki kosong. Tetapi ada usulan awal untuk membangun jalur layang ke Brighton, di mana kereta api yang dilengkapi layar harus dibawa oleh angin. Karena angin kencang, ini tidak akan menjadi garis di mana setiap jenis jadwal dapat disimpan, dan itu tidak pernah lebih dari mimpi yang indah.

Tetapi udara memainkan perannya di rel kereta api dengan menyediakan tenaga melalui apa yang sekarang kita anggap sebagai rel ketiga. Tahun delapan belas empat puluhan, ketika garis sedang dibangun dan diperpanjang di mana-mana, melihat di London, Devon Selatan, dan Irlandia, eksperimen gagah yang agak megah disebut Kereta Api Atmosfer.

Sudah ada tabung pneumatik di mana, jika udara ditarik keluar di satu ujung, piston atau pembawa ditembakkan oleh kekuatan udara yang masuk di ujung yang lain. Pesan di operator dapat dikirim dengan cepat dengan metode ini. Clegg dan Samuda menyusun gagasan bahwa, jika beberapa hubungan dapat dibuat antara piston di dalam tabung dan kereta di luarnya, piston akan menarik kereta setidaknya secepat lokomotif bisa menariknya. Ini berarti bahwa di sepanjang tabung harus ada celah yang darinya sebatang batang dapat muncul untuk membuat sambungan dengan kereta api. Itu menimbulkan masalah tentang bagaimana tabung itu bisa tetap kedap udara, sebagaimana seharusnya jika itu berfungsi dengan baik.

SISTEM ATMOSFER. Pada diagram bawah, AA adalah pipa kontinu yang dipasang di antara rel B, piston CC, pelat besi yang terhubung ke piston D, peralatan penghubung pelat ke kereta E, rol logam untuk membuka katup kontinu F, rol yang dipasang ke kereta untuk menutup katup dan , W, penyeimbang piston. Pada diagram atas : H, katup cuaca K, katup kedap udara kontinu berengsel pada / L, komposisi untuk katup penyegel dan M, roller yang dipasang pada kereta untuk membuka katup cuaca. Diagram tanpa huruf menunjukkan penampang garis dan kereta.

Rencana yang diadopsi, mungkin, adalah satu-satunya yang mungkin. Sebuah penutup kulit diletakkan di atas slot, dan, saat kopling datang, dua roda kecil berjalan sebelum mengangkat penutup dan memberi jalan. Di belakang kopling, tutupnya jatuh kembali ke slot dan menutupnya. Secara teoritis, seharusnya tidak ada kebocoran dalam praktik, seperti yang terbukti kemudian, ada banyak hal dan itu yang menyebabkan sistem gagal.

Clegg dan Samuda mencoba pipa mereka di trek di Wormwood Scrubbs, yang sekarang menjadi bagian dari West London Railway (London, Midland dan Scottish and Great Western Joint) yang melintasi Addison Road. Percobaan dilakukan di sana, mungkin, karena pada saat itu tidak ada kegunaan lain untuk jalur tersebut. Mereka cukup sukses untuk mengesankan Brunel. Dia telah menyelesaikan Great Western dan Bristol dan Exeter, dan sekarang melanjutkan dengan South Devon Railway. Sejauh ini dia telah membangun jalur yang mudah, yang meskipun mungkin memberikan beberapa tanjakan yang panjang, tidak memberikan jalur yang benar-benar berat.

Tapi di luar Newton Abbot dia dihadapkan dengan negara yang sulit. Dia harus naik turun melewati taji Dartmoor untuk sampai ke Plymouth. Tidak ada yang bisa dilakukan selain melakukan pergantian. Sekali lagi dia ragu apakah lokomotif bisa mendaki bukit. Jadi dia memutuskan untuk menggunakan sistem atmosfer antara Exeter dan Plymouth dan, mungkin, bahkan di Cornwall. Itu seharusnya memberinya di setiap kereta, ketika harus mendaki dengan keras, cadangan daya dari mesin stasioner yang tidak perlu dibangun dalam batas sempit yang harus dipertimbangkan pada lokomotif.

Saat dia sedang membangun bagian pertama South Devon dari Exeter ke Newton Abbot, dia meletakkan pipa dengan sisa jalurnya.

Peralatan belum siap ketika kereta api dibuka pada Mei 1846, dan lokomotif harus digunakan tetapi pekerjaan didorong ke depan, karena publik tidak sabar untuk melihat suasana kereta api. Mungkin banyak yang dijanjikan tentang kelancaran dan kebersihan sistem, bagaimanapun juga, kereta api tanpa mesin akan sangat menakjubkan untuk dilihat dan dilalui.

Percobaan dimulai pada bulan Februari 1847, tetapi baru pada bulan November ada layanan publik, dan lokomotif tidak hilang sama sekali sampai awal tahun 1848. Selama percobaan kecepatan tinggi telah disentuh - sebanyak 70 mil per jam dengan kereta ringan dan kemudian, ketika ada pekerjaan penuh, dilaporkan bahwa dari 884 kereta berjalan 790 telah menyimpan waktu atau memperolehnya. Namun pengujian pipa di jalur yang hampir rata di samping muara Exe dan di bawah tebing pantai bukanlah ujian yang diharapkan Brunel nanti di atas perbukitan ketika ia harus berbelok ke daratan.

BAGIAN PIPA yang digunakan pada sistem atmosfer South Devon Railway. Kereta yang digerakkan oleh tekanan atmosfer berjalan pada tahun 1847. Kecepatan hingga 70 mil per jam dicapai sebelum metode tersebut harus ditinggalkan.

Stasiun pompa di South Devon berdiri terpisah tiga mil, dan bekerja dalam relai. Ketika sebuah kereta tiba di suatu bagian, stasiun di bagian itu mulai memompa udara, dan kemudian berhenti memompa ketika kereta telah lewat. Bagaimanapun, memang seharusnya begitu, tetapi tidak ada komunikasi telegrafis antara stasiun-stasiun kedatangan kereta api harus dihitung menurut tabel waktu, dan kadang-kadang stasiun mulai memompa terlalu cepat.

Kurangnya koordinasi ini secara alami menambah biaya pekerjaan, dan tampaknya aneh bahwa South Devon Railway tidak memiliki telegraf, karena jalur induknya, Great Western, memilikinya secara praktis sejak awal. Apa, mungkin, jalur pertama yang digunakan diletakkan antara Paddington dan West Drayton dan kemudian diperluas ke Slough. Melalui baris ini, beberapa telegram yang sekarang bersejarah. Salah satunya pada tahun 1844 adalah pesan kerajaan, memberi tahu London tentang kelahiran seorang pangeran di Windsor. Satu lagi di tahun yang sama adalah yang pertama dikirim oleh polisi dengan harapan mencegah atau mendeteksi kejahatan. Saat itulah kerumunan besar, dengan banyak pencopet terkenal di dalamnya, pergi dengan kereta api dari Paddington ke Slough untuk Montem Day di Eton. Nama dan deskripsinya dikirim melalui telegram ke Slough, di mana beberapa pencopet diperingatkan dan yang lainnya ditangkap saat mereka keluar dari kereta.

Tapi kurangnya koordinasi bukan satu-satunya masalah yang menimpa South Devon Railway. Segera tutup yang seharusnya membuat pipa kedap udara mulai menunjukkan kelemahannya. Kulit tidak tahan terhadap keausan yang disebabkan oleh lewatnya kopling, dan celahnya harus dilapisi secara bebas dengan lemak agar tetap lentur dan membuatnya pas di atas slot. Lemak memiliki musuh-musuhnya, matahari melelehkannya dan tikus memakannya. Sulitnya merawat flap dengan baik menyebabkan pipa menjadi bocor dan jalannya kereta menjadi tidak menentu.

ANTARA LONDON BRIDGE DAN CROYDON kereta atmosfer mulai berjalan pada tahun 1845. Pipa bagian terlihat di atas dari mana udara dikeluarkan lima inci lebih kecil dari pipa dua puluh inci yang digunakan di South Devon Railway. Sistem atmosfer ditinggalkan di London dan Croydon Railway pada Juli 1846, ketika jalur itu diambil alih oleh London, Brighton dan South Coast Railway.

Brunel enggan meninggalkan sistem itu sampai dia melihat cara kerjanya di jalur yang sedang dia bangun, dengan pandangan ini, di luar Newton Abbot, tetapi, karena tidak ada penutup yang lebih baik daripada yang digunakan yang dapat dirancang, dia harus pergi kembali ke lokomotif pada musim gugur tahun 1848. Dia telah memperkirakan bahwa akan ada penghematan pengeluaran sebesar 㿯.000 dan penghematan tahunan sebesar ٦.000 dalam bekerja. South Devon kehilangan antara 𧷤.000 dan 𧹈.000 pada sistem atmosfer, dan kompi, yang sekarang bergabung di Great Western, dibiarkan dengan garis, antara Newton Abbot dan Plymouth, yang tidak direncanakan untuk lokomotif . Itu tidak dapat dibuat dengan mudah, tetapi mungkin tidak akan seberat jika tidak dibangun sebelum Brunel kehilangan kepercayaan pada proyek tersebut.

Di garis antara Jembatan London dan Croydon itulah orang London memiliki sensasi apa pun yang mungkin ada dalam mengendarai Atmospheric. Pada jalur ini sistem diadopsi terutama karena prasangka terhadap lokomotif di atau dekat London. Inspirasi datang ke direktur Croydon, seperti halnya Brunel, dari kesuksesan Atmospheric yang tampak di jalur kecil Dublin dan Dalkey di Irlandia tetapi jalur Croydon sudah siap untuk peralatan jauh sebelum Devon Selatan.

Kereta mulai berjalan pada tahun 1845, tetapi di sini, seperti di tempat lain, tutup atau katupnya rusak, pipa menjadi bocor, dan kereta kehilangan kecepatan dan terkadang berhenti karena kekurangan daya. Mereka tidak bisa mendaki ke puncak, dan kisah diceritakan tentang bagaimana penumpang keluar untuk mendorong, dan kadang-kadang didorong begitu keras sehingga kereta lari dan meninggalkan mereka. Pipa Croydon berdiameter lima belas inci, dan South Devon dua puluh inci. Tutupnya sama di kedua jalur, dan keduanya tidak tahan cuaca maupun anti tikus. Dalam cuaca panas, lemaknya mengalir, dan setiap saat tikus datang untuk berpesta.

Sistem atmosfer ditinggalkan antara London dan Croydon pada Juli 1846, ketika jalur Croydon menjadi milik London, Brighton dan South Coast Railway. Sayang sekali Brunel tidak mengambil pelajaran dari gambar ini, tetapi dia masih bertanya-tanya bagaimana dia bisa naik kereta api melintasi perbukitan Devonshire tanpa bantuan pembangkit listrik.

Sedikit yang diingat sekarang tentang Atmospheric, tetapi menarik untuk melihat kembali padanya karena telah memberikan kereta api rel ketiga pertama, atau, setidaknya, setara dengannya. Itu adalah sistem pertama yang memungkinkan transmisi daya, selain dengan drum yang berliku, ke tempat yang jauh dari mesin sehingga pembangkit tenaganya adalah yang pertama di dunia. Kita sekarang sudah akrab berbicara tentang pembangkit listrik dan rel ketiga seperti yang kita pikirkan, memberikan arus listrik ke kereta api, adalah hal biasa di jalur pinggiran kota dan bukan lagi hal baru dalam perjalanan ke pantai.

Kami tidak melihat rel ketiga sampai tahun 1890, ketika bagian pertama dari City and South London Tube dibuka, dan itu empat puluh dua tahun setelah Atmospheric dihapus. Namun, jika London pernah membuat Kereta Bawah Tanah hanya untuk barang, di jalur Kereta Api Tube Kantor Pos, itu bisa bekerja secara pneumatik, karena tabung semacam itu bisa dibuat cukup kedap udara. Apa yang membunuh Atmospheric, seperti yang berusaha digunakan Brunel dan yang lainnya, adalah kesulitan menghubungkan piston di dalam tabung dengan kereta di luar dan pada saat yang sama mencegah kebocoran.

Namun, jika para insinyur perkeretaapian pada masa itu tidak dapat menggunakan alternatif yang nyaman seperti lokomotif uap, cacat berat ini mungkin dapat diatasi.

STASIUN POMPA di South Devon Railway. Stasiun ditempatkan tiga mil terpisah dan dioperasikan secara bergantian. Ketika kereta tiba di bagian tertentu, stasiun pemompaan mulai mengeluarkan udara dari pipa, dan berhenti hanya ketika kereta telah lewat.


Catatan kaki dan referensi

    Informasi tentang tekanan ekonomi dan sosial di balik elektrifikasi diambil dari Surrey Railways Remembered oleh Leslie Oppitz, Bab 4, p27. Oppitz mencatat laporan kontemporer di The Times yang menggambarkan rute LBSCR London-ke-Brighton sebagai "merangkak ke selatan", meskipun ia juga mengatakan kereta tercepat pada jadwal mereka pada saat itu membutuhkan waktu satu jam dan 5 menit untuk pergi dari Jembatan London. ke Brighton, yang tidak jauh dari waktu perjalanan saat ini. Pengaruh kompetisi trem juga berasal dari Oppitz, Bab 4, hal.27. Menurut Robert J Harley's Croydon Tramways , pekerjaan untuk melistriki jalur trem Croydon (yang sebelumnya ditarik kuda) dimulai pada Oktober 1900, dan pada musim semi 1902 kota itu memiliki "jaringan trem listrik yang berfungsi penuh". Peter Clark (komunikasi pribadi) mencatat bahwa ada dua perusahaan trem yang beroperasi di Croydon pada saat itu - Croydon Corporation (CCT) dan Perusahaan Penerangan dan Jalur Trem Listrik Metropolitan Selatan (SMET) - yang berarti bahwa dalam beberapa kasus melalui perjalanan tidak memungkinkan . Misalnya, perjalanan dari Purley ke Central London melibatkan pergantian trem di Tooting dan karena keengganan CCT untuk membiarkan trem SMET melintasi jalurnya di West Croydon, biasanya tidak mungkin untuk naik trem langsung dari Sutton ke Crystal Palace . Oleh karena itu, trem bukanlah ancaman besar bagi perkeretaapian seperti yang seharusnya terjadi jika kedua perusahaan lebih terkoordinasi. Tanggal dan cara pengoperasian jalur listrik antara Battersea Park dan East Brixton diambil dari Oppitz, Bab 4, hal.28. Informasi tentang peluncuran elektrifikasi dan efek Perang Dunia I diambil dari Oppitz, Bab 4, hlm28–29, dan diperluas dengan menggunakan komentar dari Peter Clark. Informasi tentang aliran listrik pertama melalui West Croydon diambil dari West Croydon milik Vic Mitchell dan Keith Smith ke Epsom (Middleton Press). Tanggal dan alasan di balik konversi AC-ke-DC dari rute Sutton yang diambil dari Croydon Barat ke Epsom dan dikonfirmasi oleh Oppitz (Bab 4, h.29). Peter Clark juga menunjukkan bahwa biaya per mil untuk pemasangan AC ternyata lebih tinggi karena kebutuhan untuk mendirikan gantries di atas kepala dan mengubah struktur yang ada seperti jembatan. Banyak detail lebih lanjut mengenai semua aspek elektrifikasi dapat ditemukan di bab awal G T Moody's Southern Electric 1909-1979. Salinan Majalah Kereta Api Selatan dikonsultasikan di Perpustakaan Studi Lokal Croydon. Artikel tentang program pembangunan Southern 1931 ada di Vol 9 No 98 (Feb 1931), p42. L Catchpole, “The Railways of Croydon”, Majalah Kereta Api Selatan Vol 10 No 118 (Oktober 1932), pp378–383. Informasi tentang penemuan pipa atmosfer diambil dari Majalah Southern Railway Vol 11 No 127 (Jul 1933), p254. Untuk alasan ruang, saya tidak menyebutkan operasi atmosfer di artikel saya sebelumnya tentang Stasiun West Croydon pada 1800-an, tetapi ini adalah subjek yang cukup menarik. Ian Mansfield telah menulis tentangnya secara panjang lebar, baik dalam sebuah artikel tentang eksperimen atmosfer Croydon dan dalam seri lima bagian (juga tersedia sebagai eBook Kindle) tentang "London's Lost Pneumatic Railways". Grace's Guide menyatakan bahwa "stasiun pompa West Croydon dipindahkan untuk membentuk bagian dari bangunan saluran air Surrey Street, yang masih ada." "The Railways of Croydon" memberikan rincian perubahan dari perspektif 1932 ketika selesai, mereka "akan menutup gedung stasiun yang sekarang menghadap London Road, juga pintu masuk sisi bawah dan kantor di Station Road. Kantor akan disediakan di jembatan baru yang sedang dibangun di atas jalur dekat Kotak Sinyal Selatan dan penumpang akan mencapai peron Atas melalui tangga yang berakhir di dekat Teluk Wimbledon, dan peron Bawah, sekarang diperpanjang, dengan jalan tertutup baru.” Kutipan diambil dari “West Croydon Station Rebuilt”, Majalah Southern Railway , Vol 12 No 136 (April 1934), hal152. Foto PH-07 1642 di Perpustakaan Studi Lokal Croydon memiliki pemandangan yang bagus ke pintu masuk London Road lama seperti pada tahun 1923. Ada juga foto lain dari pintu masuk ini di tangga pub Ship of Fools di seberang stasiun, cepat sampai di sana jika Anda ingin melihatnya, karena pub ini akan diubah menjadi cabang Sainsbury's. Sebuah artikel tentang balok dan balok yang diterbitkan oleh University of the West of England (sayangnya tidak lagi tersedia secara online secara gratis) menyatakan bahwa balok beton “telah umum digunakan sejak tahun 1930-an”. Peter Clark menambahkan: “The Southern Railway merekonstruksi sejumlah stasiun pada saat itu menggunakan beton dalam berbagai bentuk, dari struktur cor di lokasi hingga yang memiliki inti balok beton, yang sebagian besar dihadapkan dengan rendering semen atau bahan lainnya. Sementara utilitarian dalam konstruksi, hasilnya sering disebut 'Odeonesque' atau 'Moderne' meskipun saya tidak yakin istilah apa yang diterapkan ke Croydon Barat. Balok-balok itu mungkin dibuat di bekas pekerjaan LSWR di Exmouth Junction yang menghasilkan berbagai macam produk beton untuk Southern Railway.” Toko-toko yang dibangun di kedua sisi pintu masuk stasiun baru saat ini ditempati oleh Maplin hingga Road Runners di sebelah kanan pintu masuk, dan Greggs di sebelah kiri. Bagian belakang bangunan ini terlihat dari ujung selatan peron 3 (lihat pemandangan dari peron dan artikel saya tentang penomoran ulang London Road. 3 Station Road (saat ini ditempati oleh William Hill) adalah bagian dari blok yang sama, dan juga dibangun pada saat yang sama foto PH/041 6281 di Perpustakaan Studi Lokal Croydon, diambil selama pekerjaan konstruksi, adalah pemandangan yang bagus untuk ini Saya tidak yakin kapan toko-toko di seberang jembatan kereta api (Speedy Cash melalui Zam Call) dibangun. "Stasiun Croydon Barat Dibangun Kembali" mengatakan bahwa kereta bawah tanah lama "dapat terkena banjir setelah badai". Croydon Barat ke Epsom menyertakan peta dari tahun 1894 yang menunjukkan lokasi kereta bawah tanah ini, yang kira-kira sejajar dengan zaman modern Pintu masuk Station Road. Stasiun West Croydon memiliki tiga pintu masuk Station Road yang berbeda sepanjang sejarahnya. Salah satu yang dibuka pada tahun 1930-an adalah yang kedua dari ini yang pertama terletak lebih jauh di bawah Station Road (seperti yang dijelaskan dalam artikel pertama saya di stasiun), NS d yang ketiga, yang dibuka pada tahun 2012, hampir sama dengan yang pertama. Informasi tentang lokasi pintu masuk Station Road tahun 1930-an berasal dari pengetahuan saya sendiri tentang daerah tersebut saat ini yang dikombinasikan dengan melihat foto-foto lama di Southern Railway Magazine dan di tempat lain. Gambar "Dulu dan Sekarang" Jo Orr tentang Station Road sangat membantu dalam hal ini (meskipun sayangnya sekarang telah menghilang dari internet, versi foto vintage Jo yang lebih besar dan kurang terpotong muncul sebagai gambar 28 di Croydon's Tramways oleh John Gent dan John Meredith ). Saya tidak memiliki referensi yang baik untuk kapan ditutup, tetapi seorang komentator di blog London Reconnections mengatakan bahwa itu "ditutup sekitar tahun 60-an untuk ingatan saya". Saya datang dengan teori ini sendiri, setelah seorang teman bertanya kepada saya mengapa kemiringan naik lebih tinggi dari yang diperlukan, meskipun saya kemudian melihat bahwa komentator London Reconnections lain menghipotesiskan hal yang sama. Setelah saya menerbitkan artikel ini, David Fisher (percakapan online, Januari 2013) mengarahkan saya pada pandangan mata burung Bing Maps dari jembatan dan pintu masuk Station Road, yang membuatnya sangat jelas apa yang terjadi. Informasi keberadaan passimeter di pintu masuk Station Road berasal dari “West Croydon Station Rebuilt”, yang menyebutkan “a new passimeter booking office”. Saya belum bisa mengetahui jenis passimeter apa ini, meskipun istilah itu tampaknya telah digunakan untuk berarti pintu masuk tipe pintu putar, atau loket tiket yang berdiri sendiri (yang terakhir mungkin khusus untuk London Underground). Jenis yang paling mungkin dalam pandangan Peter Clark adalah "kantor pusat dengan rute masuk dan keluar di kedua sisi, satu petugas diharapkan untuk mengelola kedua arus, menerbitkan dan mengumpulkan tiket. Baik saat sepi, tapi tidak bagus jika antrean di kedua sisi menumpuk. ” Geoff Smith, mengomentari London Reconnections, mencatat bahwa passimeter tidak biasa di Southern Railway pada saat itu.

Informasi tentang fasilitas di pintu masuk London Road (dan kutipan tentang ruang penyegaran) juga berasal dari “West Croydon Station Rebuilt”. Perlu dicatat bahwa pintu masuk London Road sebelum tahun 1930-an juga mengakomodasi setidaknya satu bisnis non-kereta api: Croydon Shopping and Entertainment News bulan Agustus 1922 memuat iklan untuk “Salon Penata Rambut baru” yang terletak “Di Aula Pemesanan di Sisi Atas ” (“Naik” yang berarti “menuju London), dengan J Donald terdaftar sebagai pemiliknya. Meskipun yang ini "hanya untuk wanita", iklan tersebut selanjutnya mencatat bahwa ada juga "cabang untuk Tuan-tuan di Jembatan London dan Stasiun Cannon Street juga di Brighton." Edisi berikutnya, dari bulan Desember tahun yang sama, memuat iklan kecil sebagai bagian dari kolom tentang saran hadiah Natal: “Donald's di West Croydon Station memiliki sejumlah kecil dan lain-lain yang begitu disayangi hati seorang wanita—botol-botol kecil parfum pekat, wee powder-puff, dll.”

Mengenai ruang penyegaran itu sendiri, Terry Coleman memberi tahu saya (percakapan online, Januari 2013): “Saya ingat sebuah bar prasmanan datang berlisensi, Itu ke kiri saat Anda berjalan di foyer dari London Rd, Sepertinya sudah ada di sana selama bertahun-tahun, semuanya tampak berwarna cokelat, tempat yang tidak menyenangkan. Saya mungkin pernah ke sana sekali atau dua kali sebagai bagian dari banyak pub merangkak sebagai pemuda di akhir 1950-an. Tidak tahu kapan itu berhenti. ” Paul Sowan (percakapan langsung, Januari 2013) bercerita bahwa dia juga mengingatnya, dan selalu dipenuhi asap rokok. Saya pikir kemungkinan ini adalah ruang yang sama dengan "ruang penyegaran yang menyenangkan" yang saya sebutkan dalam artikel baik penulis Southern Railway Magazine mengambil beberapa kebebasan dengan kenyataan, atau itu benar-benar menurun selama dua dekade berikutnya.


Sebagian besar sejarah Croydon Timur dicatat dalam nama jalannya (lihat di bawah). Organisasi Komunitas East Croydon telah mengirimkan informasi yang telah kami kumpulkan sejauh ini ke proyek London Street Guide. Ini masih jauh dari sempurna dan kami akan berterima kasih, khususnya, atas informasi tentang asal usul nama Jalan Alpha, Jalan Bisenden. Edwin Place, Jackson's Lane dan John's Terrace.

Dalam menyusun informasi, kami sangat terbantu oleh Brendan O’Connor, Carole Roberts, Croydon Museum & Archives Service, David Morgan, Jerry Fitzpatrick, Scott Hatton dan Sophie Rahman. Gambar tersebut adalah detail dari peta kandang Croydon tahun 1801, salinannya dapat ditemukan di Museum & Arsip Croydon di Menara Jam Croydon.

Informasi lebih lanjut tentang sejarah Croydon Timur dapat ditemukan di halaman ini

Jalan Pengadilan Addiscombe
Thomas Benjamin Muggeridge tinggal di sebuah rumah bernama Addiscombe Court pada tahun 1872. Ini berada di Upper Addiscombe Road (sebutan Addiscombe Road saat itu), antara sudut jalan menuju lapangan dan lokasi W. Flower, pengecer bir (kemudian Kriket). Keluarga Muggeridge telah tinggal di sebuah rumah di situs itu sejak awal tahun 1855, ketika dipimpin oleh Edward, seorang pedagang jagung. Addiscombe Court Road dibangun mengikuti garis jalan dan rumah-rumah terdaftar di atasnya untuk pertama kalinya pada tahun 1906.

Jalan Addiscombe
Pertama kali muncul di peta tahun 1594, menghubungkan kota Croydon dengan dusun Addiscombe di timur (di sudut Sandilands saat ini). Dikenal sebagai Jalan Addiscombe Atas pada abad ke-19, jalan ini terletak di sepanjang garis mata air, air mengalir menuruni lereng ke utara ke arah Jalan Addiscombe Bawah.

Jalan Alfa
Tanah di sudut Cross Road dan Lower Addiscombe Road adalah bagian terakhir dari perkebunan Leslie Lodge yang akan dijual, pada tahun 1896, memungkinkan Alpha Road untuk dibangun (lihat Leslie Park Road dan Leslie Grove). Rumah itu sendiri dihancurkan c1900. Tidak diketahui mengapa diberi nama ini. Namun, nama itu biasa digunakan pada saat itu untuk merujuk pada jalan pertama yang dibangun dalam pembangunan baru.

Tempat Alfa
Jalan pendek dengan hanya dua tempat tinggal, di luar Leslie Park Road. Pertama kali dicatat pada penjualan khusus tahun 1903 yang juga mencantumkan penjualan no. Jalan Alfa 18 hingga 46. Seperti yang terakhir, tidak diketahui mengapa diberi nama ini.

Bukit Billinton
Sebuah jalan pendek menuju ke atas ke stasiun East Croydon dari Cherry Orchard Road. Secara beragam disebut sebagai Station Approach, Yard atau Street di direktori jalan dan telepon. Berganti nama pada akhir 1990-an, setelah stasiun dibangun kembali, mungkin setelah Robert Billinton, Insinyur Lokomotif dari Kereta Api London, Brighton dan South Coast dari tahun 1890 hingga 1904 atau putranya, Lawson Boskovsky Billinton, yang kemudian memegang posisi yang sama dari tahun 1912 hingga 1923.

Jalan Bisenden
Museum dan Layanan Arsip Croydon menyimpan surat wasiat keluarga Bisenden 1762-1783. Namun, ini terlalu rapuh untuk dipindai dan saat ini tidak dapat diakses karena pandemi. Hubungan keluarga ini dengan Jalan Bisenden saat ini tidak diketahui.

Jalan Blake
Mungkin dinamai menurut nama John Blake, seorang juru lelang yang tinggal di 65 Park Lane dan meninggal pada tahun 1852. Dia telah membeli tanah Brickwood setelah kematian John Brickwood pada tahun 1829. (lihat Brickwood Road). Namun, dia tidak menempatinya, membiarkannya ke serangkaian penyewa termasuk, dari tahun 1823-28, Sir Benjamin Hallowell, seorang Komandan Angkatan Laut Kerajaan yang pernah bertugas dengan Nelson. Dia meninggal pada usia 72, orang tertua kedua di paroki Croydon pada waktu itu.

Jalan Kayu Bata
Dinamakan setelah Brickwood House, dibangun pada akhir abad ke-18 oleh John Brickwood, seorang pedagang dan bankir. Dia memiliki tanah yang cukup luas di paroki Croydon dan merupakan salah satu pemilik tanah lokal yang mengajukan petisi kepada parlemen pada tahun 1796 untuk meminta izin memperkenalkan undang-undang pribadi untuk melampirkan tanah bersama di paroki Croydon. Orang miskin Croydon memprotes hilangnya hak mereka untuk menggembalakan ternak mereka dan mengumpulkan kayu bakar tanpa hasil. Setelah tagihan kandang diberlakukan, John Brickwood membeli tanah lebih lanjut baik di Croydon Common dan di Norwood Common di dekatnya. Di East Croydon, ia memiliki semua tanah di timur Cherry Orchard Road, serta beberapa plot di sisi barat dekat persimpangan Moreland Road. Sebagian besar tanah dijual ketika ia bangkrut pada tahun 1810. Namun, Brickwood membeli kembali Brickwood House dan tanah antara Cedar Road dan Addiscombe Road pada tahun berikutnya di lelang seharga £7500. Itu dijual setelah kematiannya pada tahun 1822 ke John Blake, seorang surveyor lokal (lihat Blake Road). Rumah itu dihancurkan pada tahun 1908 dan tanahnya dibagi menjadi jalan yang kita kenal sekarang, termasuk Brickwood Road.

Baris Jembatan
Deretan rumah pendek di ujung utara Cross Road, di sebidang tanah yang terisolasi ketika jalur kereta api dibangun ke barat. Mungkin mendapatkan namanya dari letaknya tepat di sebelah selatan Windmill Bridge.

Cart Lodge Mews
Jalan pribadi pendek dari Lebanon Road. Sebuah penjualan tahun 1903 mencatat kandang yang dibangun dari batu bata di daerah ini, lengkap dengan Pondok Gerobak yang dibangun dari kayu, halaman yang disemen, WC dan lubang kotoran.

Jalan Cedar
Diletakkan di sepanjang garis batas pekarangan Brickwood House dari tahun 1852 -1908 (lihat Brickwood Road dan Oval Road). Rumah itu dikatakan "tertutup di taman yang ditanami hutan dan pohon lainnya dengan selera tinggi". Mengingat persimpangan dengan Jalan Lebanon ke timur, tampaknya lahan ini termasuk pohon Cedar Lebanon.

Jalan Kebun Ceri
Dapat dilihat di peta setidaknya dari tahun 1729. Awalnya disebut Coney Lane hingga persimpangan ke trek di atas umum, kemudian dikenal sebagai Cross Road. Di utara persimpangan ini, ada jalur kereta pribadi yang disebut Lee's Road. Di sebelah selatan persimpangan ini, peta penutup tahun 1801 menunjukkan sebuah kebun di sisi baratnya yang memanjang ke (Atas) Addiscombe Road, yang dimiliki oleh Mrs E Robinson. Itu adalah kebun yang penuh dengan pohon sakura. Ketika ceri sudah matang, pameran ceri dirayakan di tempat. Pada tahun 1851, jalan itu disebut Cherry Orchard Road sepenuhnya. Saat itu kebun buah sudah lama hilang. Tanah tersebut telah dibeli oleh perusahaan Kereta Api London dan Brighton, yang mulai menjalankan kereta api dari Jembatan London ke pantai melalui East Croydon pada tahun 1841.

Jalan Chisholm
Dikatakan mengambil namanya dari James Chisholm, penghuni terakhir Addiscombe Lodge. Rumah besar ini dan pekarangannya dapat dilihat di peta persepuluhan Croydon tahun 1844 yang menempati tanah di mana jalan itu terletak, yang dulunya merupakan bagian dari perkebunan Brickwood. Itu sudah sepenuhnya dibangun pada tahun 1911, ketika muncul di peta Ordnance Survey.

Jalan Colson
Mungkin dinamai Thomas Colson, seorang surveyor, terdaftar sebagai tinggal di dekat Croydon Common di direktori jalan tahun 1849.

Lintas Jalan
Ditampilkan sebagai jalur melintasi Croydon Common pada peta bertanggal 1768. Jalur umum dicapai dari Broad Green ke Selhurst (barat ke timur), White Horse Road ke Cherry Orchard Road (utara ke selatan). Ada gerbang di ujung jalan ini untuk menghentikan hewan yang merumput di jalan raya agar tidak tersesat. Jalan dari Broad Green Gate ke Selhurst Gate bercabang di sepanjang apa yang sekarang disebut St James Road/Lower Addiscombe Road. Cross Road developed from a track branching off this, leading to Coney Lane Gate at its junction with Cherry Orchard Road. It was named after James Cross, an early landlord of the Windmill public house. From at least 1859, its small side roads are also listed in street directories. Some of these survive today as unadopted roads (Edwin Place, Jackson’s Place, John’s Terrace).

Edwin Place
Unadopted road off Cross Road. Appears in the 1859 street directory, but it is not known why it was given this name.

Heron Road
Named after the wealthy, well connected Heron family, who owned an estate that included land to the north of Addiscombe Lane roughly from Canning Road to Ashburton Road in the 16 th century (though not the land on which Heron Road lies). They also owned the Croydon rectory and, as such, were entitled to be buried in Croydon 14 th century parish church. Several items relating to the family survived the fire that destroyed this building in 1866 and can be found in the present parish church, including

  • Two shields (on the north wall) and a brass of seven daughters (on the south wall) from the memorial to Thomas Heron, who died 1544, and his wife Elizabeth.
  • A brass plate of William Heron, who died in 1563, and his wife Alice in the north chancel wall
  • three stone shields from the tomb of Sir Nicholas Heron, who died in 1566 at the west end of the church

By the 17 th century, the estate no longer belonged to the family.

Jackson’s Lane
Unadopted road off Cross Road. Appears in the 1859 street directory, but it is not known why it was given this name.

John’s Terrace
Unadopted road off Cross Road. Appears in the 1859 street directory, but it is not known why it was given this name.

Lebanon Road
Laid out along the line of the former boundary of the grounds of Brickwood House in 1810 (see Brickwood Road). The house was said to be”enclosed in a park tastefully planted with forest and other trees”. Given the junction with Cedar Road to the west, it seems likely that these grounds included a Cedar of Lebanon tree.

Leslie Grove
The Leslie Lodge estate west of Cherry Orchard Road was sold piecemeal (see Leslie Park Road). The land fronting Lower Addiscombe Road sold in the 1850s and developed into shops. The land at the rear was sold in 1874 to a buyer who drove a road through it to enable a profitable building scheme, thus creating Leslie Grove.

Leslie Park Road
Laid along part of the southern boundary of the Leslie Lodge estate. Leslie Lodge was built c1825 on what was then Addiscombe Road, but what is now 22-24 Lower Addiscombe Road. The earliest owners are unknown and it is not clear whether they bore the name Leslie. The pub sign of the former Leslie Arms nearby displays the coat of arms the Lords of Rothes, whose clan name is Leslie, together with the family motto “Grip Fast”. The clan was founded in 1070 AD, when Bartholomew, a Hungarian nobleman attached to the fugitive Saxon court, married Beatrix, the sister of Malcolm III of Scotland. They were granted lands at Leslie in the district of the Garioch, near Aberdeen, from which they took their name. The family had links with West Surrey from 1772, when Lady Jane Elizabeth Leslie, the Countess of Rothes, married Sir Lucas Pepys, the physician to George III, who lived in Juniper Hall, near Leatherhead. However, there are no known links between the Leslie family and Croydon.

The 1844 tithe map shows the Leslie Lodge estate covered much of the land between Cross Road and Leslie Park Road, as well as land to the north of what is now Lower Addiscombe Road. By 1851, it was owned by Mary Vandervell, who put that part of it to the east of Cherry Orchard Road onto the market. The sales particulars noted that Leslie Park Road had already been laid through the land making it “a first class site for the erection of suburban residences”. Within ten years, the entire frontage along northern Leslie Park Road had been developed.

Leslie Place
Leslie Place is a short road off the south side of Leslie Grove that provides access to the rear of some of the buildings on Cherry Orchard Road. It would have been created sometime between 1874 and 1894 (when it appears on an Ordnance Survey Map). For the origin of the name, see Leslie Park Road.

Lower Addiscombe Road
First appears as a path across Croydon Common on a map dating to 1768. In 1801, it was referred to as a public carriage and was called Addiscombe Road, then St James Road, probably from 1829 when St James Church was built to the west. In street directories from 1865 it was referred to as St James Rd East and finally as Lower Addiscombe Road from 1869.

Oval Road
This was once a gravel pit, the gravel being used for road building. In 1852, part of the Brickwood estate came onto the market and Oval Road was laid out. The construction of Leslie Park Road enabled it to be a through road. No plots were offered for sale on the Oval itself, which was to be a pleasure garden for the general recreation of the plot owners, who were given rights of way over it in perpetuity. 16 years later, they relinquished their rights and the Oval was sold for housing development.

Tunstall Road
Named after the Tunstall family who owned the former Heron estate from 1624. Sir John Tunstall, was a gentleman usher to Queen Anne 1, the consort of King James. His son Henry was a gentleman usher to Henrietta Maria, wife of Charles 1. Both father and son became deeply in debt during the civil war, probably because they were royalists. They had to sell the house in 1650. The land was used for agriculture until the road was laid out in the early 20 th century. Houses are listed on Tunstall Road for the first time in the 1907 Croydon street directory.


The abandoned railway station hidden through a secret wood in Croydon

Behind the residential streets of South Croydon lies a magical piece of history that has laid dormant and unused for over 100 years.

If you live in South Croydon you will probably have come across it, but for any visitors outside the area you really would have no idea it even existed..

Croydon is littered with abandoned stations but this has to be one of the most surreal and exciting.

The station was known as Spencer Road Halt railway station, and still lies down a pathway off Spencer Road and Birdhurst Rise..

The station was built in 1906 and formed part of the Woodside and South Croydon Joint Railway.

The stop was built with the aim that passengers could make a short ten minute walk to South Croydon station and link onto Brighton line for a trip by the seaside.


Coombe Road railway station

Coombe Road was a railway station on the Woodside and South Croydon Joint Railway but ceased to be an operating station in 1983.

The station opened in 1885 and was jointly used by the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway and the South Eastern Railway.

Even though the line was supposed to be very beneficial, it saw low passenger numbers which made the station relatively unprofitable.

Throughout the sixties, this became a particular problem.

The last train to depart from the station was the 7.30pm train from Sanderstead on May 13, 1983.

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“On railway cuttings and embankments with an account of some slips in the London clay, on the line of the London and Croydon Railway” by Gregory, 1844.

Although 1844 was a relatively quiet year in terms of historical events, some important technological advances occurred. In the USA, Samuel F. B. Morse sent the first telegram in his eponymous code (Library of Congress ND), and Charles Goodyear patented the process of vulcanizing rubber (Somma 2014). Meanwhile, in the UK, Charles Gregory presented his findings on railroad cuts and fills to his peers in the Institution of Civil Engineers (Gregory 1844). A century and three-quarters after Gregory published “On Railway Cuttings and Embankments”, the piece remains worth examining, both to see how far slope stability has come since the early Victorian era and to see how much was already known at the time.

Gregory begins his piece by briefly discussing the different types of soil and rock often encountered in the UK. He quickly reviews how they behave and lists some rules of thumb for cut and fill slopes in various soils. Gregory then gets into his main subject – a study of a failed railroad cut near New Cross, a small town outside London which has since been absorbed into the southeastern portion of the city (Sadler 1989). The cut, which was about 75 to 80 feet deep, consisted of 50 to 55 feet of very pervious “yellow clay of a silty character” (Gregory 1844), overlying about 15 to 20 feet of strong, impervious London blue clay. The blue clay lay over about 8’ of mixed and interbedded clay, sand, and stone layers, which in turn overlay a plastic clay which formed the layer of the railroad subgrade (Gregory 1844).

The railroad branch which ran through the cut opened in June of 1839 (Sadler 1989). In early November of 1841, a large (50,000 CY) slope failure occurred in the thick yellow clay layer. Although the cut was promptly cleared, two further slope stability failures took place within it during the remainder of November, and the railroad was not able to resume service for an extended duration until late December. In early January 1842, yet another slope failure occurred in the cut, and this one took until early February to clean up. While Gregory mentions no fatalities or derailments resulting from the failures, he does mention that extensive costs were incurred in paying laborers to work around the clock for several weeks to clear the slides after each failure, in addition to the losses incurred due to lost passenger and freight revenue on the railroad. An investigation soon began into the exact cause of the failure (Gregory 1844).

Gregory observes that the cut performed well for a while after its construction, with no visible evidence of creep or slope failure. He therefore deduces that something new must have happened to cause the slides. Gregory notes that the thick yellow clay layer is highly plastic and is shot through with cracks and fissures. He hypothesizes that water saturated the yellow clay and was trapped within it by the impermeable blue clay below. Per Gregory’s hypothesis, as the soil wetted, it expanded when it dried, cracks remained “so that, year by year, the evil would become greater, and the tendency to slip gradually increase” (Gregory 1844). Eventually, he notes, this process, aided by the natural dip of clay formation, resulted in the clay giving way (Gregory 1844).

Having addressed the nature of the problem, Gregory then turns to how the cut was repaired. First, he notes, the slope of the cut was reduced through excavation and benching. This was an impressively large effort, especially for 1844, as clearing the slides and re-excavating the cut required the removal by horse-drawn wagon of a total of 250,000 CY of clay. After the cut had been re-excavated and drainage pipes had been installed in each bench, Gregory continues, attention was turned to other cuts along the railroad in the same clay layer. These were proactively improved by excavating the bottom 5 to 12 feet of the clay layer adjacent to the tracks and replacing it with compacted gravel, which did double duty as both a retaining wall and a free-draining material to divert water away from the slope. The excavated clay was then piled behind the retaining wall to increase the mass at the toe of the slope and thereby improve the slope’s stability. According to Gregory, the system worked well enough that subsequent slides elsewhere were all treated this way (Gregory 1844).

From a modern geotechnical perspective, there is a lot to like about Gregory’s piece. For example, when Gregory observes that “the material nature of every soil, assigns to it some particular slope, at which it will remain in repose” (Gregory 1844), he is of course discussing the principle of a soil’s friction angle. Although this principle had first been recognized by da Vinci, and by Coulomb after him (Coduto et al. 2011), it remains refreshing to see a modern principle of soil mechanics recognized in a vintage piece in the field. Gregory also notes that the friction angle can depend on many factors, including “alternations of weather” (Gregory 1844). Today, geotechnical engineers recognize that “repeated wetting and drying can produce a significant reduction in the effective stress cohesion intercept” (Rogers and Wright 1986), not in the friction angle, but the fact remains that Gregory still observes the phenomenon of soil softening occurring.

Even when Gregory is incorrect, he still thinks in a way consistent with how later generations of geotechnical engineers would think. In addition to his inaccurate assessment of what soil properties change due to weathering, Gregory is off the mark when it comes to the effect of weathering on subsequent slope stability failures. Castellanos et al. (2015) performed an extensive review of the available literature on first-time slides in cuts in stiff clays. Based on this, they concluded that progressive failure, not fissuring or weathering, best explained the decrease in shear strength which led to these failures. They noted that fissures and cycles of wetting and drying “will also decrease the shear strength of a clay mass but not to the extent required to explain most first-time failures in stiff clays” (Castellanos et al. 2015). However, Castellanos et al. (2015) also noted that no less a geotechnical engineering titan than Karl Terzaghi posited a hypothesis of soil softening in 1936 which consisted of water infiltrating into fissures in clay, causing swelling along the edges of the fissures, and thereby leading to propagation of the fissures. Terzaghi’s 1936 hypothesis is strikingly similar to Gregory’s explanation of the failure of the New Cross slope almost a century prior.

Gregory also offers other connections to modern geotechnical practice, as well as suggestions for potential innovation in the field. “Quicksands and peat,” he astutely notes, “are soils of a proverbially treacherous character” (Gregory 1844) the statement still rings true today. To build embankments upon these soils, Gregory recommends using fascines, or bundles of branches, rods, or pipes, to either fill in the soft ground prior to embankment construction or to buttress the embankments as and after they are constructed (Gregory 1844). Today, geotechnical engineers might use other methods, such as deep mixing, to support embankments on soft ground that cannot be removed, but the basic principle of augmenting a weak material using a stronger one remains the same. Perhaps the idea of a fascine, possibly in the form of PVC or ductile iron pipes filled with concrete, could be worth exploring anew. Gregory also suggests constructing two-slope embankments with a gentler inclination at the bottom to more widely distribute load onto soft soils (Gregory 1844). The idea is intriguing, albeit frequently impractical due to spatial constraints.

Since Gregory published “On Railway Cuttings and Embankments”, modern geotechnical developments of which he could only have dreamed have long since overtaken the piece. Field and laboratory tests can be used to assess appropriate shear strength parameters for sands, silts, and clays. These properties can be used together with a number of potential techniques for the assessment of slope stability, including the Swedish circle method, the method of slices, and the respective methods of Bishop, Morgenstern and Price, and Spencer (Duncan et al. 2014). Once appropriate parameters and assessment methods have been selected, computer programs like SLIDE2 and SLOPEW, which utilize the aforementioned methods or other limit equilibrium techniques, can assess the stability of thousands of slope surfaces in only seconds (Duncan et al. 2014). More recently, reliability techniques have been introduced into slope stability, allowing for the computation of failure probabilities in addition to the traditional factor of safety (Duncan et al. 2014). However, Gregory’s piece remains worth reading and examining as much for its strengths as for its shortcomings.

Castellanos, B. A., T. L. Brandon, and D. R. VandenBerge (2015). “Use of Fully Softened Shear Strength in Slope Stability Analysis.” Landslides, 13 (4), 697-709.

Cooling, L. F., A. W. Skempton, and A. L. Little, eds. 1969. A Century of Soil Mechanics. London, UK: Institution of Civil Engineers.

Duncan, J. M., S. G. Wright, and T. L. Brandon. 2014. Soil Strength and Slope Stability, 2nd Ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.

Gregory, C. H. 1844. “On railway cuttings and embankments with an account of some slips in the London clay, on the line of the London and Croydon Railway.” Minut. Prok. Inst. Civ. Eng., 3, 135-145. Reprinted in Cooling et al. (1969).

Perpustakaan Kongres. ND. “Invention of the Telegraph.” Samuel F. B. Morse Papers at the Library of Congress, 1793-1919. Accessed December 22, 2020. https://www.loc.gov/collections/samuel-morse-papers/

Rogers, L. E., and S. G. Wright. 1986. The Effects of Wetting and Drying on the Long-Term Shear Strength Parameters for Compacted Beaumont Clay. Austin, TX: Center for Transportation Research, The University of Texas at Austin.

Sadler, J. C. 1989. “London and Croydon Railway.” Sydenham Life. Reprinted on StBartsChurchSydenham.org. Accessed December 23, 2020. https://www.stbartschurchsydenham.org/railway.html

Somma, A. M. 2014. “Charles Goodyear and the Vulcanization of Rubber.” Connecticut History.org. Accessed December 22, 2020. https://connecticuthistory.org/

Terzaghi, K. 1936. “Stability of Slopes of Natural Clay.” Prok. Int. Conf. Soil Mech. Found. Eng., 1, 161-165.


London and Croydon Railway - History

The London & Birmingham Railway (L&BR) was London’s first main line and the largest civil engineering project yet attempted in the country, on a scale rarely matched before. The experience gained formed the basis of much of the general development of civil engineering in Britain and established the construction technology of the railway age. It also precipitated the railway mania of the 1840s.

Robert Stephenson, son of George Stephenson, was appointed engineer-in-chief for the whole line in September 1833. He was not yet thirty. He lived from 1836 to 1842 in a house then called 5 Devonshire Place, on the west side of Haverstock Hill, at the corner of Belsize Grove. His wife, Frances, died here and is buried in Hampstead churchyard.

The route of the line at the London end was dictated by the desire to reach the docks. Plans for the London terminus of the railway at Maiden Lane, near Kings Cross, had been rejected by Parliament and Robert Stephenson, ordered to make economy cuts, proposed a terminus in Camden Town at a depot by the side of the Regent’s Canal, adjacent to the Hampstead Road. At Camden Station some rail freight destined for waterside locations, including the Docks, could be transferred to the Canal, while rail passengers and other freight would be discharged onto the road system at Hampstead Road (now Chalk Farm Road).

Forced by high ground to approach London from the west rather than the northwest, the railway made its way around the edge of the built up area, heading slightly north of east, and passed between the southern flank of Hampstead Heath and Primrose Hill. The ground to the south of Primrose Hill was blocked by Regent’s Park and Portland Town. Gradients were kept down to 1 in 587 by means of nearly three miles of cutting and the 1120 yard (1024 metre) Primrose Hill Tunnel.

In late 1834 the L&BR company applied for an extension from Camden Town to allow passengers to reach Euston. The extension to Euston Grove, beside the New Road, was authorised on 3 July 1835 under the amending Act. The Regent’s Canal had to be crossed at a height that allowed boats to pass below the ground at Camden Depot therefore had to be raised, while that at Hampstead Road, close to Mornington Crescent, and six other road crossings, had to be lowered for rail tracks to pass under the roadways. The deep cutting with its handsome stone and iron bridges had massive curved retaining walls formed from about 16 million bricks.

The original plan was for Euston to serve both the L&BR, London’s first main line, and the Great Western Railway (GWR). However, as a result of Isambard Brunel’s insistence on a 7 ft (2.1 m) gauge for the GWR, and other disagreements between the rail companies, the west side pair of lines was not used by the GWR.

A stationary winding engine house was built by Robert Stephenson to pull trains up the incline from Euston to Camden Town, known as Camden Bank or Camden Incline, with a 4080 yard (3730 metre) long endless rope. Both the winding engines and the 19 ft (6 m) deep cutting to Euston responded to the concerns of influential local residents in regard to the noise and smoke from locomotives toiling up the Incline. The winding engine house formed a large vaulted underground structure, located under the main line just north of Regent’s Canal Bridge. Motive power was provided by two steam engines of 60 hp. Its two prominent chimneys became a tourist attraction. They were 133 ft (40 m) high, tapering from 12 ft (3.7 m) diameter at the base to 6 ft (1.8 m) at the top.

Later railways in the Camden area were to avoid the steep gradient imposed by the Regent's Canal either by going under it, as at Kings Cross, or by raising the rail terminus on arches, as at St. Pancras.

The first sod for the L&BR was cut at Chalk Farm on 1 June 1834. Difficult ground conditions on the Primrose Hill contract, including the tunnel and deep approach cutting, bankrupted the contractor. The work had to be taken over by the company using direct labour.

Maudslay, Sons & Field of Lambeth supplied 12 Bury-type 0-4-0 locomotives for the L&BR as well as the winding engines, delivery of which was delayed by repairs to the Regent’s Canal. A variety of Stephenson and other locomotives worked trains up the Incline until the winding engines were commissioned.

The Euston to Boxmoor section opened on 20 July 1837, and the 32 mile (52 km) line from Euston to Tring (and another section south from Birmingham) was opened in October 1837. The through line from London to Birmingham opened for public service on 17 September 1838. Initially passengers were unable to alight at Camden Station as the access road to the Hampstead Road was considered unsuitable, and a passenger station was created at Chalk Farm Bridge (now Regent’s Park Road Bridge).

In 1837 there were three trains a day going north from Euston pulled by small and slow locomotives. Only passengers went as far south as Euston. Camden handled all freight, which was transferred to road for distribution around London, or to the Regent’s Canal for transport to and from London docks.

First class passengers travelled in comfortable covered coaches but third class wagons were open, without windows, curtains or cushions on the seats. Both forms can be seen in the picture, showing Euston Station in 1837. Third class was stopped in October 1837 to be resumed three years later with third class trains and closed carriages.

At Camden the train from Euston arrived at the Iron Bridge that carried the railway over the Regent’s Canal and shortly afterwards the ‘messenger’, which attached the first carriage to the endless rope, was cast off before reaching the winding engines below. Carriages were then allowed to run along the line until they met and were harnessed to the locomotive engine by which they were pulled to Birmingham. From the stationary engine house to Chalk Farm Lane Bridge the gradient reversed from the climb up the Incline to a slight fall. This was engineered so as to check the speed of a train coming into London, and to give an impetus to one leaving London.

Trains from Birmingham would stop at Camden for tickets to be collected and for the locomotives to be detached from the front of the train and shunted to the rear to give the train an impetus towards Camden Incline. The train, now controlled by a brakeman or ‘bankrider’, travelled under gravity down the slope to Euston Station at a maximum speed of 10 mph. The endless rope can be seen between the rails of the eastern pair of rail tracks in the two pictures of Camden Incline.

After a number of trials, it was found that newer and more powerful locomotives could manage the Camden Incline, often with a second locomotive at the rear of the heavier trains. This saved time and operating costs, and the stationary engines were abandoned in April 1844. The underground vaults built by Robert Stephenson to house the stationary winding engines have survived extremely well and are structures on a truly majestic scale.

London & North Western Railway and its successors

In 1846 the London & Birmingham Railway (L&BR) amalgamated with several other companies to become the London & North Western Railway (LNWR), the largest of the Victorian era companies.

The rail freight connection to London docks was not made until the completion of the East and West India Docks and Birmingham Junction Railway in 1851. The name was changed to North London Railway (NLR) in 1853. This line proved very successful as a passenger line for city workers commuting from the new estates. With the through line from Camden Town, goods could be moved directly to and from the London docks, and the railway was a real rival to the Regent’s Canal at last.

The LNWR was a ‘main line’ railway and local traffic was largely left to the NLR. Hampstead Road station was opened in 1851. The station was re-sited four years later, renamed Chalk Farm in 1862 and rebuilt in 1871. Chalk Farm Station had platforms on both the LNWR and NLR lines with a footbridge link between the two after 1872. The four-track LNWR line out of Euston was widened between 1900 and 1906, requiring the demolition of one side of Park Village East.

Until the 20th century LNWR proper had no suburban services to speak of, except those associated with the NLR. After 1907, traffic was lost to Chalk Farm tube station, but the LNWR platforms lingered mainly for ticket collection purposes. Ticket collecting from platforms declined, however, and this, together with the need for space for the new system of sub-surface tracks, led to the demolition of the LNWR Chalk Farm station in 1915. No traces of the old LNWR platforms remain today. The North London Railway became part of the LNWR in 1922.

The next stage of major expansion was essentially for suburban services. It was based on the broad concept of an electrified system embracing all the North London lines west of Broad Street, an electrified line to Watford, and the extension of the Hampstead services by electric trains to Kew Bridge. The main lines from Euston to the North were already far too crowded to permit an intense electric service being superimposed on them. The decision was taken to build a “New Line” on which the suburban electric services would be almost entirely independent of the main lines, designed for four-rail DC electric trains. At Willesden Junction and eastwards to Chalk Farm widening could be done most conveniently on the up (into London) side of the line. The New Line was opened in stages from 1912. Various stages within Camden were completed over 1915-1917, including two single track tube-type tunnels just north of the original Primrose Hill Tunnel, but the entire project was held up pending the complete track-remodelling scheme at Chalk Farm, which created an elaborate system of burrowing junctions.

On 10 July 1922, Chalk Farm station, long closed to passenger traffic, was reopened, although with platforms only on the line to Broad Street. The lines from Euston, the exit from Camden goods yard, and the newly electrified link from Camden Town all led to the new non-conflicting junctions controlled by Camden No. 2 box. Here they were sorted out to enter the old fast (southern) and slow (northern) Primrose Hill Tunnels and new twin electrified bores. The new bores at Primrose Hill Tunnel, and new tracks from there to Queen’s Park, were the final portion of the new line to be opened.

The LNWR became part of the London Midland and Scottish Railway (LMS) under the “Grouping” of 1923. After nationalisation in 1948, the London Midland Region of British Railways administered Camden Goods Depot.

After the opening of a new shed at Willesden for freight locomotives in 1873, the remaining locomotive shed at Camden Depot was used almost exclusively by large express passenger locomotives. It thus became a mecca for train buffs. Steam lasted until 1962, to be replaced by diesel, but the diesels did not stay long and the Passenger Locomotive Shed (then known as Camden Motive Power Depot) was closed completely on 3 January 1966. Today carriage sidings occupy much of its site. The goods depot closed around 1980.

In 1950 Chalk Farm station became Primrose Hill station and the street building was reconstructed. Primrose Hill station closed on 22 September 1992. The island platform with its 1871 buildings remained until December 2008 when it was demolished controversially by Network Rail.


London and Croydon Railway - History

KEN TOWL reviews an extensive and exhaustive new book about the local light rail network, which opened for service in May 2000

The 20th anniversary of the south London tram network opening is this May

As former ITN newsreader and “The Voice of Tramlink”, Nicholas Owen notes in his foreword that the transport system officially called “London Tramlink” is more commonly referred to as the Croydon trams.

Gareth’s David’s new book Croydon Tramlink, A Definitive History quite rightly puts Croydon at the heart of its 20-year history of the south-east’s only tram system.

Indeed, David looks back to the years before the opening ceremony on May 10, 2000, and charts the development of the trams as Croydon’s response to the threat posed by a booming Docklands served by a light railway system of its own. Croydon was looking tatty by comparison and faced a future of decline and falling property rents.

In addition, New Addington had remained isolated and ill-served by public transport since it grew up after World War II. A tram line could be a lifeline.

Support was by no means universal: Sir Paul Beresford, Croydon Central’s Tory MP at the time, told Parliament during the second reading of the Croydon Tramlink Bill that residents of Lynden Hyrst on Addiscombe Road “feel that when they step on to the pavement, the Tramlink will virtually run across their toenails”.

Croydon Tramlink is a substantial book written by an experienced, professional journalist (David worked on the business desks of The Times, Observer dan Sunday Times for 10 years) that details the system’s planning, building, opening, financial meltdown, rescue by Transport for London, and a section dedicated to photos of trams. Indeed, the book is what an advertiser might be tempted lazily to describe as “lavishly illustrated throughout”.

The book is full of intriguing vignettes that illustrate the perhaps inevitable friction between planning evangelists and the nimbyist tendency of the local fauna. A woman who lost part of her back garden to the line near the Sandilands stop (described perhaps uncharitably by a transport official as “slightly mad”) apparently informed the Parliamentary Committee that the squirrels she fed would “all be devastated”.

David’s book does not skirt around the 2016 tragedy either. The chapter “Accidents and incidents” documents a litany of apparent suicide attempts, careless motorists, tram-surfing and a handful of fatalities, setting the scene for what David refers to as “a defining moment in the history of Tramlink… 06.07hrs on Wednesday, 9 November 2016… Britain’s worst tram disaster for almost a century”.

For the first time, the fatalities were passengers of the tram itself.

David applies a light touch to speculation about why the tram came off the rails at the bend near Sandilands, briefly exploring statements made by passengers, employees, British Transport Police and the chief executive of First Group, the parent company of Tram Operations Ltd, before focusing on recommendations and enhancement to safety made as a result of the crash.

Finally, David looks at the potential expansion of the network. He is a passionate advocate for extending it.

From the long-mooted spur up to Crystal Palace to the ill-considered and ill-fated “Dingwall Loop” documented previously in Inside Croydon, none have become reality. That loop, of course, had been predicated on the arrival of the great 200,000 sqm Westfield shopping centre. Another possible extension, given tentative approval by the then London Mayor, Boris Johnson, is a Wimbledon to Sutton line which could potentially link the system, and Sutton, of course, to the Tube network via the Northern Line at Morden.

That’s certainly the transport investment which David thinks would serve south London best.

This book is something of, well, a trainman’s holiday for David, a life-long railway enthusiast whose CV includes the interesting nugget that he has travelled most of the narrow gauge railways across Europe, including the entire network of Albania. Living in Guildford these days, he is a working volunteer on the Mid-Hants Railway vintage line.

Ahead of the important anniversary of what has proved itself an enormously successful piece of transport infrastructure, we are fortunate to have David chart the history of Tramlink which is, above anything else, a Croydon institution.

Coombe Lane tram stop is one of the more remote and rural on the network

It has changed the way many of us move around, it has provided an umbilical cord between the denizens of New Addington and the burghers of Wimbledon, to the benefit of both, and it provides us all with a quick and cheap lift to places as diverse as Morden Hall Park, the Addington Hills and the Tesco at Elmers End.

David says that his favourite stop is among its most remote: Coombe Lane. “It is such a delightful spot, and with a pleasant walk back to Lloyd Park alongside the tramway”.

You don’t have to be a light railway nerd to be interested in Croydon Tramlink, A Definitive History, but for anyone who has the good fortune to live in Croydon, it must be worth at least a look at the story of “how one corner of Greater London identified, and then created, an environmentally-friendly and sustainable solution to its urgent need for improved local transport”.

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The ghastly history of Gatwick Airport train tunnel that leads to Croydon

Whether you&aposve ever got the train from Croydon to Gatwick Airport or you would normally use the rail line to get to work in Redhill, you will know the long tunnel that sends your journey into darkness.

Obviously, we aren&apost travelling too far at the moment, but you&aposll also know the Merstham Tunnel - between Coulsdon South and Merstham stations - because your phone loses signal for ages.

Without Twitter to scroll through or the latest WhatsApp group message to read you actually look up and wonder "why are we going through a tunnel?" Or "what could we possibly be passing under between Croydon and Redhill?"

For more news and features about London directly to your inbox sign up to our newsletter here.

Few passengers - even those who travel on the Brighton Main Line - will know the answers.

And even fewer are likely to know the sinister history of the Merstham Tunnel, or that it was the scene of the first possible murder on a train in the UK.

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The construction of the 1.04-mile-long Merstham Tunnel started in 1839 and took two years to complete.

It is there so that trains can get through the hills of the North Downs, with the tunnel being cut through chalk.

Tunnel built to link London and Brighton by train

The tunnel&aposs construction would be a crucial part of allowing London and Brighton to be linked by a train line.

When a railway line from London to Brighton was first proposed in the 1830s no fewer than six routes were suggested, only two of which came through the Merstham Gap north of what is now Redhill.

The winning route was an unexpected victor at the end of a Parliamentary enquiry.

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Even then, the line should have gone through or near Reigate rather than two miles to the east of it. According to one account, opposition from local landowners prevented it doing so, but it is more likely that the topography of the area was the cause.

The route chosen followed that of the new Brighton Road, opened in 1818 through the gap between Redstone Hill and Redhill Common.

At that time Redhill as a town did not exist. The area now occupied by the town centre was empty marshland devoid of any buildings. There were a few farms in the vicinity and a cluster of cottages but that was about it.

Tunnel initially fitted with gas lamps to make passengers feel safer

When the tunnel was finished, to make the public feel safe in the darkness, gas lamps were fitted to the walls which were whitewashed.

This was soon abandoned, however, after the large amount of soot emitted from the trains made it too difficult to keep bright.

The tunnel was something of an engineering marvel but in 1905 it gained notoriety for a far darker reason when it became the site of a murder mystery.

Tunnel became the site of a real life murder mystery

On September 24, 1905, a 22-year-old woman&aposs body was found mutilated inside the tunnel by a sub inspector, William Peacock.

Peacock found Mary Sophia Money shortly before 11pm, while her body was still warm, and took her to the nearest train station where police instructed him to bring it to The Feathers Inn.

Mary, a bookkeeper, did not have any identifying papers on her and the day after her brother, Robert Henry Money, a dairy farmer, had to identify her.

It was initially assumed the cause of death was suicide, as Peacock believed she had jumped from a train while it was passing through the tunnel.

However, "claw marks" were found on the walls of the tunnel which suggested there may have been a struggle.

A silk scarf had been forced down the woman&aposs throat

The theory that she had been murdered was strengthened by her post-mortem, as it was discovered that a white, silk scarf had been forced down her throat.

Scratches, bruises and cuts were also discovered on her arms and face, which led doctors to believe she had been pushed off or struggled with someone while on the train.

Her last moments were then heavily investigated by detectives as they tried to solve the murder.

On the night of her death she had bought a bag of chocolates after finishing work at about 7pm and told a friend she was going for a walk before heading to Victoria station.


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