Kapal di Mediterania Kuno

Kapal di Mediterania Kuno


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Orang Mesir, Fenisia, Yunani, dan Romawi semuanya makmur di Mediterania kuno berkat penguasaan laut mereka yang memungkinkan mereka menangkap ikan, berdagang, memenangkan pertempuran laut, dan membangun kota-kota baru yang jauh dari perairan pantai mereka sendiri. Dalam koleksi 32 gambar ini kami menampilkan penggambaran kapal laut dalam seni kuno, rekonstruksi modern, dan contoh peralatan dan dekorasi yang masih ada yang digunakan pada kapal kuno.


Xenophon dalam bukunya Hellenica (catatan tahun-tahun terakhir Perang Peloponessian dan sesudahnya) menyebutkan beberapa kapal bernama, misalnya, "Paralus" dan "Salamia". Dengan demikian, kita dapat menyimpulkan bahwa setidaknya beberapa kapal Yunani diberi nama pada abad IV SM, dan mungkin lebih awal. Juga, Homer dalam Iliad-nya, yang berasal dari abad ke-8 SM, tidak memberikan nama apa pun untuk banyak kapal Achaean - yang mungkin hanya kebetulan, tetapi juga dapat menunjukkan tradisi pemberian nama kapal yang muncul kemudian.

Adapun Romawi - sekali lagi, ini adalah bukti tidak langsung, tetapi kapal Aeneas di "Aeneid" semuanya memiliki nama, jadi kita dapat berargumen bahwa pada tahun 20 SM kapal Romawi setidaknya kadang-kadang diberi nama.

1300 SM, penyebutan pertama cerita dalam sumber tertulis dilakukan oleh penulis seusia Homer - dan teks tertua yang ditemukan sekarang bahkan lebih tua, sekitar abad ke-3 SM. padahal tradisi penamaan kapal sudah ada. Jadi saya tidak menggunakannya sebagai argumen. &ndash Danila Smirnov 27 Jan '18 di 4:31

Otobiografi Ahmose, putra Abana, seorang tentara Mesir pada awal Dinasti Ke-18 (1550-1600 SM), menyebutkan beberapa nama kapal yang ia tumpangi. "Banteng Liar", "Utara" dan "Bangkit di Memphis" menurut terjemahan ini

Ide penamaan kapal sudah ada sejak beberapa ribu tahun yang lalu, tetapi, tidak mengherankan, hanya ada sedikit bukti dari hari-hari awal pelayaran.

Mungkin bukti paling awal dari nama kapal individu adalah kapal Pujian dari Dua Negeri,

kapal Mesir besar yang terbuat dari kayu cedar, dibangun ca. 2680 SM

Sumber: Anita Schybergson, 'Sistem Kognitif dalam Penamaan Kapal Finlandia'. Dalam Carole Hough & Daria Izdebska (eds), ''Nama dan Lingkungannya': Prosiding Kongres Internasional Ilmu Onomastik ke-25, Volume 5' (2014)

'Dua negeri' mungkin merujuk pada Mesir Hilir dan Mesir Hulu.

Jika kita menerima nama dari mitologi, maka kita mungkin mempertimbangkan barque surya dewa Mesir Kuno Ra, Atet, yang dikenal dengan dua nama:

Barque matahari yang dilihat orang pada siang hari disebut Mandjet, dan yang berlayar melalui dunia bawah dikenal sebagai Meseket.

Bukti lain dari zaman Kerajaan Lama tampaknya hanya menunjukkan apa yang sekarang kita sebut sebagai kelas kapal. Misalnya, kapal Henet dan kapal Shabet adalah dua jenis kapal pemakaman, dan tampaknya tidak ada bukti bahwa kapal ini memiliki nama: di makam Seneb, prasastinya hanya menyatakan '"rowing in a Shabet-ship" dan "berlayar di Henetboat". Bahkan nama 'kapal Khufu' yang terpelihara dengan baik tidak diketahui, dengan asumsi bahwa kapal itu memilikinya (tetapi ada bukti dari Kerajaan Baru, seperti yang ditunjukkan pada posting pengguna91876).

YUNANI KLASIK

Dari Yunani Kuno, Kapal dan Kelautan di Dunia Kuno oleh Lionel Casson menyebutkan bahwa sangat sedikit nama kapal yang diketahui sebelum akhir abad ke-5 SM, tetapi

. dari 377-322 SM, daftar angkatan laut Athena mempertahankan sekitar 300 nama yang diberikan untuk galai dalam armada.

Di antara nama-nama yang disebutkan adalah

Aktis, Anysis. Ekaristi. Hikana. Prote. Salpinx

Di antara nama-nama favorit adalah 'Nike' dan nama-nama yang mengacu pada kemampuan kapal dan 'kepastian untuk berhasil'. Nama-nama geografis dan hewan juga digunakan, begitu juga dengan dewa, kata sifat ('emas') dan kata benda abstrak. Nama-nama ini sebagian besar diberikan kepada triremes, beberapa untuk quadriremes

"Armada triremes terdiri dari foto-foto replika Olympias ukuran penuh modern" Sumber: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/df/Greek_Galleys.jpg

PERIODE HELLENISTIK

Untuk periode Helenistik kita tahu lebih sedikit tetapi ada Syracusia yang

mungkin adalah kapal angkut terbesar dari zaman kuno yang dibangun setelah perintah Hieron II, raja Syracuse, oleh Archias dari Korintus sekitar 240 SM, kemudian diberikan sebagai hadiah kepada Ptolemy III Euergetes dari Alexandria dan diganti namanya menjadi Alexandria (atau Alexandris ). Dirancang oleh Archimedes. Menggunakan varian sekrupnya untuk menarik kapal yang belum selesai ke laut tempat pekerjaan selesai.

Sumber: gcaptain melalui Wikipedia Penggambaran berlebihan dari Syracusia dari 1798

Ini dilampaui ukurannya oleh Tessarakonteres, yang dibangun oleh putra Ptolemeus III, Ptolemy IV tetapi tampaknya (menurut Plutach) hanya untuk pameran (jadi mungkin yang ini tidak boleh dihitung).

ROMA KUNO

Casson mengatakan bahwa sumber untuk nama kapal 'jauh lebih kaya' untuk Roma Kuno. Rincian diberikan dalam Bab 15 dari Kapal dan Kelautan. Dalam buku lain, Pelaut Kuno, Casson mengatakan bahwa

Seorang prajurit Romawi diberi nama tetapi tidak tertulis di lambung kapal seperti hari ini. Alih-alih ukiran ilustratif dipasang di haluan, misalnya, relief dewa jika kapal dipanggil setelah satu

Dia juga mencatat bahwa, untuk nama, ada

preferensi yang dapat dimengerti untuk dewa laut seperti Neptunus, Nereis, Triton, atau untuk favorit pelaut seperti Isis dan Castor dan Pollux. Sejumlah kapal memiliki nama geografis, dan di sini ada kecenderungan, cukup alami, untuk masuk ke sungai pada satu waktu atau yang lain semua sungai besar di dunia kuno, Tigris, Efrat, Nil, dan Danube, diwakili dalam armada. Tetapi beberapa diberi nama berdasarkan kualitas abstrak, dan fakta bahwa itu adalah angkatan laut masa damai tampaknya tercermin dalam pilihan: nama-nama seperti Triumphus atau Victoria jarang, para pembaptis lebih menyukai Concordia^ lustitia, Libertas, Pax, Pietas, dan sejenisnya.


Studi makanan mengupas kembali sejarah manusia 1.000 tahun lebih awal dari yang diperkirakan

Pertimbangkan pisang sederhana: Buah yang ada di mana-mana tiba di Amerika Serikat hanya 150 tahun yang lalu, pada tahun 1870-an dan 80-an. Sejak itu, buah ini menjadi buah segar yang paling disukai di Amerika, dan salah satu yang paling terjangkau. Dengan rata-rata 55 sen per pon, pisang menghiasi mangkuk buah di seluruh spektrum sosial ekonomi. Tandan digantung di toko kelontong besar di pinggiran kota. Mereka beristirahat di konter di toko makanan sudut di pusat kota.

Meskipun pisang Amerika sekarang berasal dari Amerika Tengah atau Karibia, mereka awalnya berasal dari belahan dunia lain — Asia Selatan. Mereka padat karya untuk dipetik dan sulit diangkut, tetapi dengan globalisasi dalam produksi dan perdagangan pangan, mereka mulai sebagai makanan lezat untuk orang-orang istimewa dan akhirnya menjadi makanan pokok.

Kisah modern tentang pisang di Amerika mencerminkan kisah yang jauh lebih tua — kuno, bahkan — tentang bagaimana manusia membentuk budayanya di sekitar makanan.

Philipp Stockhammer, seorang profesor di Institut Max Planck untuk Ilmu Sejarah Manusia di Jerman, mengatakan Terbalik kepercayaan yang berlaku bahwa manusia purba hanya makan makanan yang ditanam di dekat rumah mereka semuanya salah.

"Kita perlu menyingkirkan asumsi bahwa orang-orang di masa lalu hanya memakan apa yang tumbuh di sekitar mereka," kata Stockhammer. "Sejak awal, manusia tertarik pada rasa yang berbeda, makanan eksotis, dan masakan yang rumit, dan membutuhkan banyak upaya untuk mendapatkan akses ke berbagai makanan."

Sejak 4.000 tahun yang lalu, buah-buahan eksotis ini telah mencapai lempengan-lempengan yang jauh melampaui Samudera Hindia.

Selama beberapa dekade, bukti terbaik yang dimiliki para arkeolog untuk memahami apa yang dimakan manusia purba terletak pada barang-barang mereka yang diawetkan. Bejana berisi madu yang disimpan di makam kuno atau sisa-sisa abu masak yang ditemukan tertanam dalam tembikar bekas, misalnya.

Gigi tua menceritakan kisah baru — Berkat teknik baru yang melibatkan analisis pulpa gigi yang diawetkan di gigi 16 Mediterania kuno, para arkeolog perlahan-lahan merekonstruksi makanan sehari-hari orang-orang ini — menemukan selera dan keinginan mereka mungkin jauh lebih dekat dengan kebiasaan makan modern kita daripada kita pikir sebelumnya.

Analisis baru, yang melihat lebih dekat pada protein makanan yang terkunci di pulpa gigi manusia Zaman Perunggu – pada dasarnya, plak yang terbentuk di gigi mereka – diterbitkan Senin di jurnal. Prosiding National Academy of Sciences.

Apa yang mereka temukan - Stockhammer dan rekan-rekannya menemukan bukti paling awal untuk konsumsi kunyit dan kedelai di Levant prasejarah — wilayah Mediterania Selatan yang saat ini mencakup Lebanon, Israel, Palestina, dan Turki.

Bukti mendorong masuknya makanan ini ke dalam diet Mediterania kembali 1.000 tahun, Stockhammer dan rekan-rekannya belajar.

Mereka juga menemukan beberapa bukti paling awal bahwa makanan ini dikonsumsi dalam bentuk olahan - minyak, rempah-rempah, dan makanan kering - mengisyaratkan pemandangan kuliner kuno yang jauh lebih beragam dan canggih daripada yang kita bayangkan sebelumnya.

Lebih lanjut, penelitian ini mengungkapkan bagaimana orang-orang kuno berinteraksi satu sama lain. Kunyit, pisang, dan kedelai adalah makanan pokok di Asia Selatan, bukan Mediterania - bahkan wijen, makanan yang dianggap penting untuk masakan ini, adalah impor, studi menunjukkan.

Christina Warriner, asisten profesor Antropologi dan rekan penulis studi, mengatakan Terbalik salah satu bahan yang kami anggap klasik sebenarnya adalah kelezatan asing.

"Temuan kami menunjukkan bahwa masyarakat kuno Mediterania Timur dan Asia Selatan terlibat dalam perdagangan dan komunikasi selama milenium ke-2 SM," kata Warriner. "Saat ini, sulit membayangkan masakan Levantine tanpa makanan berbasis wijen seperti tahini, tetapi wijen pada awalnya merupakan impor."

"Kami sekarang mulai memahami bagaimana dan kapan beragam komponen masakan ikonik muncul," tambahnya.

Bagaimana mereka melakukannya— Para peneliti menggunakan kombinasi mikroskop dan analisis protein untuk menganalisis sisa makanan dalam kalkulus gigi dari 16 individu yang pernah tinggal di wilayah antara 1688 SM dan 1000 SM. Beberapa, seperti orang-orang yang ditemukan terkubur di Megiddo, sekarang di Israel, tampaknya bertubuh kaya dilihat dari benda-benda yang mereka kubur. Lainnya, seperti yang ditemukan di Tel Erani, situs lain di tempat yang sekarang disebut Israel, tidak tampak begitu kaya. Tetapi mereka semua memiliki satu kesamaan: Kebersihan gigi yang buruk.

"Kalkulus gigi, juga dikenal sebagai karang gigi, adalah bentuk plak gigi yang terkalsifikasi," jelas Warriner.

"Mikrofosil tanaman yang kami pelajari termasuk fitolit - suatu bentuk kaca tanaman yang terbentuk terutama di rumput dan sereal - dan butiran pati," katanya.

Mikrofosil ini mengungkapkan sisa-sisa kurma dan gandum - keduanya diharapkan, karena mereka adalah makanan yang ditanam secara lokal dan tanaman pokok yang dikenal.

Tetapi ketika mereka menggali protein yang terkandung dalam 14 gigi individu (2 gigi tengkorak tidak cukup diawetkan untuk melakukan analisis ini), mereka menemukan protein nabati yang menunjukkan budaya makanan yang kaya dan beragam.

"Ini termasuk protein yang ditemukan dalam gandum, wijen, kunyit, kedelai, dan pisang," kata Warriner.

"Kami menunjukkan bahwa analisis protein dapat digunakan untuk mendeteksi makanan yang diproses dan disiapkan, seperti minyak dan rempah-rempah, yang jika tidak, hanya meninggalkan sedikit jejak diagnostik," tambah Warriner. "Ini menarik karena minyak dan rempah-rempah kemungkinan merupakan salah satu barang paling awal yang diperdagangkan dalam jarak jauh, tetapi mereka adalah salah satu makanan yang paling sulit diidentifikasi secara arkeologis."

Anehnya, distribusi protein makanan berubah dari waktu ke waktu, menunjukkan kelimpahan makanan yang tersedia untuk orang-orang dari berbagai bidang masyarakat juga berubah — menjadi semakin mudah diakses dari waktu ke waktu.

"Apa yang bisa kita lihat adalah bahwa di awal milenium ke-2, individu berstatus tinggi dari Megiddo yang memiliki akses ke makanan asing," kata Stockhammer. "Pada akhir milenium ke-2, pria Tel Erani yang makan pisang jelas-jelas tidak berstatus tinggi."

Mengapa itu penting - Dengan menggali apa yang dimakan orang-orang kuno ini, makalah ini memberikan jendela ke masa lalu, mengungkapkan bagaimana masyarakat manusia purba, yang dipisahkan oleh jarak yang sangat jauh, berkomunikasi satu sama lain dengan makanan — dan individu-individu yang bertanggung jawab untuk mendorong perubahan dan perluasan selera.

Masakan Lebanon hari ini menyajikan Sfouf, kue kunyit. Ras el hanout, campuran rempah-rempah yang juga mengandung kunyit, adalah salah satu rasa yang paling diasosiasikan dengan masakan Levantine. Seluruh toko didedikasikan untuk halva berbasis wijen. Dan apa jadinya bungkus falafel tanpa tahini?

"Baru sekarang kita menjadi cukup sadar bahwa makanan adalah bagian penting dari globalisasi awal ini — sangat mirip dengan situasi kita saat ini, di mana makanan adalah salah satu barang paling global!" kata Stockhammer.

"Temuan protein kunyit dan kedelai dalam kalkulus gigi salah satu individu dari Meggido sangat menarik," kata Warriner. "Orang ini dimakamkan di sebuah makam yang kaya dan ada beberapa petunjuk arkeologis bahwa dia mungkin seorang pedagang atau pedagang jarak jauh."

"Meskipun kami tidak dapat memastikan, dia mungkin mewakili seseorang yang terlibat langsung dalam membangun hubungan jarak jauh antara Levant dan pusat perdagangan jauh di Asia Selatan atau sekitarnya," katanya.

Apa berikutnya - Meskipun penelitian ini memperluas gagasan kami tentang bagaimana manusia purba di Mediterania pernah hidup dan makan, penelitian ini dibatasi oleh ukuran sampel kecil yang hanya 16 individu. Hanya penelitian lebih lanjut yang dapat mengungkapkan sepenuhnya dinamika kuliner yang dimainkan di Levant kuno.

"Dari temuan kami, sulit untuk mengatakan apa peran komunikasi tentang makanan eksotis yang dimainkan di masa lalu," kata Stockhammer.

Studi ini juga tidak menjelaskan bagaimana pedagang kuno menyampaikan barang dagangan mereka dari satu sudut dunia ke sudut lain, atau bagaimana pedagang lokal akan mendistribusikan makanan ini begitu mereka sampai ke pasar.

"Sangat sulit untuk menggambarkan pasar seperti itu, karena kami kekurangan sumber visual dan tekstual. Kami berasumsi bahwa mereka mirip dengan pasar masa kini di Mediterania dengan kios pasar yang menawarkan buah, sayuran, dan rempah-rempah," kata Stockhammer.

Saat ini, pola makan kita bergantung pada perdagangan internasional. Gagasan untuk tidak dapat mengakses makanan seperti pisang, bumbu kari, atau tahu adalah kutukan bagi banyak dari kita di dunia barat. Tapi satu hal yang bisa kami identifikasi dengan para pedagang kuno ini adalah jarak yang akan kami tempuh itu satu varietas cabai, itu campuran rempah-rempah dari daerah Thailand itu, itu keju dari wilayah Prancis itu. Pada akhirnya, temuan ini menghubungkan kita dengan nenek moyang kita — mengungkapkan keinginan kita tidak jauh berbeda.

Upaya yang dilakukan manusia purba untuk mendapatkan makanan yang mereka idamkan "sangat mirip dengan apa yang dilakukan orang hari ini" kata Stockhammer. "Walaupun saat ini tenaganya sudah pasti berkurang dan kecepatannya jauh lebih cepat. Saya tidak perlu menunggu lagi kapal dari India membawa lada atau kunyit lebih banyak."


JENIS KAPAL UMUM

Unger, Richard W. Kapal dalam Ekonomi Abad Pertengahan, 600�. Montreal, CA: Pers Universitas McGill–Queen’s. 1980.

Lewis, Archibald R., dan Timothy J. Runyan. Sejarah Angkatan Laut dan Maritim Eropa, 300�. Bloomington: Pers Universitas Indiana, 1985.

Wilson, David M. Viking dan Asal-usulnya. New York: Penerbit A & W, 1980.

Rogers, John G. Asal Mula Istilah Laut. Boston: Nimrod Press, 1984.

———. Naval Warfare di bawah Oars. abad ke-4 sampai ke-16. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1940.

Weda, Michael. Menuju Hermeneutika Citra Kapal Zaman Perunggu Aegea. Mannheim: Bibliepolis, 2000.


Memetakan Perdagangan di Mediterania Kuno

Kasos berfungsi sebagai persimpangan maritim kuno selama berabad-abad dan menjadi pusat perdagangan dan pertukaran produk eksotis. Menempatkan penemuan-penemuan baru ini ke dalam konteks sejarah, para arkeolog memulai pada 2019 dengan peta Mediterania, tetapi sekarang, peta itu dipenuhi dengan bangkai kapal. Terlebih lagi, peta itu sekarang disilangkan dengan garis matriks, karena setiap amphorae yang diangkat ke permukaan menceritakan kisah kompleks tidak hanya tentang apa yang dikonsumsi orang-orang di Kasos, tetapi juga asal-usul jauh dari produk ini.

Dikombinasikan dengan penemuan 2019 peralatan makan dan amphorae yang berasal dari abad ke-1 SM hingga beberapa waktu antara abad ke-8 dan ke-10 M, penemuan kapal dagang Romawi baru-baru ini membantu melengkapi gambaran yang muncul tentang Kasos sebagai pusat perjalanan panjang. -perdagangan dan perdagangan jarak jauh. Dan inilah sebabnya, meskipun tidak ada emas dan perak yang ditemukan di bangkai kapal, Kementerian Yunani menyebut penemuan kapal karam Romawi ini sebagai "harta karun kuno lainnya."

Gambar atas: Para arkeolog mengangkat amphora dari kapal karam Romawi kuno di Kasos. Sumber: © / Kementerian Kebudayaan Yunani


Bajak laut epik Yunani

Sikap terhadap pembajakan di Yunani kuno tercermin dalam epos Homer, Iliad dan Pengembaraan, terdiri sekitar 750 SM. Meskipun bajak laut sering dibicarakan dengan ketidaksetujuan dalam karya-karya ini, pada beberapa kesempatan tindakan dan aktivitas mereka tidak hanya dimaafkan tetapi juga dipuji.

Sejarawan Thucydides kemudian menulis tentang motif yang berbeda bagi penduduk pesisir untuk mempraktekkan pembajakan, ”beberapa untuk melayani dewa asmara mereka sendiri dan beberapa untuk mendukung yang membutuhkan”. Seperti Homer, Thucydides menunjukkan bahwa perampok dapat dihormati: “Mereka akan jatuh ke kota yang tidak dilindungi oleh tembok dan akan menjarahnya, ini menjadi sumber utama mata pencaharian mereka, belum ada aib yang melekat pada pencapaian seperti itu, tetapi bahkan beberapa kemuliaan.”

Pada akhir abad keenam SM, perdagangan Yunani membentang sepanjang dan luasnya Mediterania. Peningkatan volume dan nilai barang yang diperdagangkan berarti bahwa, untuk pertama kalinya, kota-kota pesisir besar seperti Athena, Korintus, dan Aegina hampir sepenuhnya bergantung pada perdagangan laut. Dengan pembajakan yang sekarang menjadi ancaman signifikan bagi kepentingan komersial mereka, kota-kota ini memperkenalkan sejumlah langkah untuk melawannya. (Barbarossa kemudian menjadi bajak laut yang paling ditakuti di Mediterania.)

Menurut Thucydides, orang-orang Korintus adalah yang pertama menggunakan angkatan laut mereka untuk menekan pembajakan. Biaya besar dan ketidakpraktisan kampanye angkatan laut skala besar, bagaimanapun, akan menghalangi banyak negara lain dari upaya semacam ini. Akibatnya, sepanjang abad kelima dan keempat SM, negara-negara Yunani mencoba untuk mengurangi pembajakan menggunakan langkah-langkah yang lebih murah, termasuk kampanye sporadis yang dirancang untuk "membersihkan lautan bajak laut" pembentukan aliansi dan pakta dengan bahasa tertentu yang melarang bandit laut pembangunan angkatan laut pos-pos di daerah yang populer dengan bajak laut dan penggunaan pengawalan angkatan laut untuk melindungi pengiriman pedagang.

Langkah-langkah ini terbukti tidak membuahkan hasil dalam menghentikan para perompak. Pada abad keempat SM, Alexander Agung percaya bahwa serangan terhadap kapal dagangnya akan mengancam rencana invasinya ke Persia. Dia menciptakan koalisi internasional pertama yang benar-benar melawan pembajakan yang diharapkan akan disumbangkan oleh sekutu-sekutunya. Tetapi setelah kematiannya pada 323 SM, tidak ada kekuatan yang kuat atau cukup makmur untuk menekan pembajakan. Faktanya, penerus Alexander menemukan bahwa bajak laut dapat dimanfaatkan untuk keuntungan mereka, baik untuk secara langsung mengancam musuh mereka, atau dengan dimasukkan ke dalam angkatan laut mereka sendiri sebagai unit tambahan.

Demetrius I dari Makedonia secara teratur mempekerjakan bajak laut di antara pasukan angkatan lautnya. Abad pertama SM sejarawan Diodoros Siculus mencatat bahwa deretan kapal spektakuler yang dikerahkan Demetrius ketika memblokade Rhodes termasuk sejumlah bajak laut, pemandangan yang "membawa ketakutan dan kepanikan besar bagi mereka yang menonton." (Beberapa perompak mempraktikkan demokrasi. ketika mereka tidak sibuk menjarah.)

Kejahatan dan hukuman ilahi

Seniman merangkul pembajakan dalam karya-karya mereka, seperti dalam mosaik Romawi abad ketiga Masehi. Ditemukan di House of Dionysus dan Ulysses di Thugga (di Tunisia modern), itu menggambarkan, Dionysus, dewa anggur, di atas kapal bajak laut. Diadaptasi dari kisah yang muncul di Himne Homer (serangkaian puisi dari abad ketujuh dan keenam SM) dan Ovid's Metamorfosis (8 M), sang dewa diculik oleh bajak laut yang percaya bahwa dia adalah seorang pangeran fana. Ketika mereka mencoba mengikat Dionysus, talinya terlepas. Juru mudi memperingatkan bahwa dia pasti dewa, tetapi para perompak tidak memperhatikan. Tiba-tiba, pohon anggur muncul dari atas tiang, dan Dionysus berubah menjadi singa. Para perompak yang ketakutan melompat ke laut dan berubah menjadi lumba-lumba. Dalam mosaik, sosok Dionysus ada di sebelah kiri (kepalanya telah hilang), dan mengulurkan tangan ke arah mentornya yang gemuk, Silenus, yang memegang kemudi.


Bangkai kapal Romawi kuno ditemukan tidak terganggu di Mediterania

Sebuah kapal karam era Romawi kuno telah ditemukan di dasar Laut Mediterania di lepas pantai timur Siprus.

Penyelam menemukan itu masih sarat dengan amphorae transportasi - toples tanah liat besar yang biasanya digunakan untuk menampung anggur dan cairan lainnya.

Ini dianggap sebagai penemuan pertama yang terpelihara dengan baik dari jenisnya dalam sejarah negara kepulauan itu.

Departemen Purbakala Siprus mengatakan kapal itu kemungkinan besar berasal dari Suriah dan Kilikia kuno di pantai selatan Turki modern.

Para arkeolog bawah laut sedang bekerja untuk memeriksa kapal itu, tambah departemen itu.

Bangkai kapal Vasco da Gama ditemukan

1 /6 Bangkai kapal Vasco da Gama ditemukan

Bangkai kapal Vasco da Gama ditemukan

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Bangkai kapal Vasco da Gama ditemukan

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Bangkai kapal Vasco da Gama ditemukan

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Bangkai kapal Vasco da Gama ditemukan

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Bangkai kapal Vasco da Gama ditemukan

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Bangkai kapal Vasco da Gama ditemukan

Operasi survei geofisika

Bangkai kapal itu ditemukan oleh sepasang penyelam sukarelawan dari unit penelitian arkeologi Universitas Siprus.

Departemen Purbakala mengatakan studi tentang kapal itu "diharapkan dapat menjelaskan luas dan skala perdagangan laut antara Siprus dan provinsi Romawi lainnya di Mediterania timur".

Sejumlah kapal kuno telah ditemukan di lepas pantai pulau itu, termasuk salah satunya yang berasal dari era Yunani di pertengahan abad ke-4 SM yang dianggap sebagai salah satu yang paling terpelihara di kawasan itu.

Para arkeolog yang bekerja di bangkai kapal itu mengatakan mereka telah memperoleh wawasan tentang evolusi pembuatan kapal kuno di wilayah tersebut.


Kapal kuno memberi tahu para ilmuwan tentang sejarah Mediterania

(ORDO NEWS) &mdash Para arkeolog Israel telah melakukan penelitian terhadap sebuah kapal yang tenggelam pada abad ke-7 di lepas pantai Israel. Temuan ini memberi para ilmuwan pengetahuan penting tentang periode antara era Bizantium dan Islam di wilayah tersebut.

Kapal, panjang 25 meter, ditemukan, menurut pos Yerusalem, pada kedalaman dangkal 35 kilometer selatan Haifa. Dan sudah sejak 2016, penelitian arkeologi aktif telah dilakukan di tempat ini. Cukup banyak artefak berharga yang ditemukan di kapal dagang. Diantaranya &ndash 103 keramik amphorae diisi dengan berbagai produk pertanian &ndash zaitun, buah ara, kacang pinus. Namun, dua dari enam jenis amphorae tersebut belum pernah ditemukan sebelumnya.

Kapal, seperti yang diasumsikan para arkeolog, sebelum pergi ke dasar laut, mengunjungi pelabuhan Siprus dan Mesir. Para ahli percaya bahwa kekayaan kargo bertentangan dengan kepercayaan populer bahwa perdagangan di Mediterania Timur terbatas selama transisi antara Bizantium dan pemerintahan Islam.

Hebatnya, para ilmuwan menemukan prasasti di kapal &ndash baik dalam bahasa Yunani dan Arab, dan selain itu, salib Kristen dan nama Allah yang ditulis dalam bahasa Arab ditemukan. Oleh karena itu, peneliti kesulitan untuk menjawab siapa pemilik kapal niaga ini. Selain itu, para ilmuwan mengatakan bahwa struktur kapal itu sendiri dapat menceritakan tentang transisi antara dua teknik pembuatan kapal yang terkenal, ketika kerangka atau lambung kapal pertama kali dibuat.

&ldquoTransisi ini telah menjadi tema utama dalam sejarah pembuatan kapal selama hampir 70 tahun, dan beberapa pertanyaan belum terjawab. Oleh karena itu, setiap kapal karam pada periode ini mengandung sejumlah besar informasi yang dapat menjelaskan masalah ini, &rdquosays arkeolog Deborah Zikel.


Kapal di Mediterania Kuno - Sejarah

Orang Fenisia, muncul di tempat dengan tradisi maritim yang mapan, dan teknologi untuk membangun kapal dengan lambung yang lunas. Hal ini memungkinkan mereka untuk mengarungi laut lepas, dan sebagai hasilnya, bangsa Fenisia mengembangkan perdagangan laut yang berkembang.

Selain ekspor dan impor ini, Fenisia juga melakukan perdagangan transit yang penting, terutama dalam barang-barang manufaktur Mesir dan Babilonia (Herodotus, i, 1). Dari tanah Efrat dan Tigris rute perdagangan reguler mengarah ke Mediterania. Di Mesir para pedagang Fenisia segera memperoleh pijakan mereka sendiri mampu mempertahankan perdagangan yang menguntungkan di masa anarkis dari dinasti ke-22 dan ke-23 (c. 945-c. 730 SM). Meskipun tidak pernah ada koloni biasa Fenisia di Mesir, Tirus memiliki seperempat dari mereka sendiri di Memphis (Herodotus, ii, 112). Perdagangan karavan Arab dalam parfum, rempah-rempah, dan dupa melewati tangan Fenisia dalam perjalanannya ke Yunani dan Barat (Herodotus, iii, 107).

Peran yang secara khusus diberikan tradisi kepada orang Fenisia sebagai pedagang Levant pertama kali dikembangkan dalam skala yang cukup besar pada masa dinasti ke-18 Mesir. Posisi Fenisia, di persimpangan jalur darat dan laut, di bawah perlindungan Mesir, mendukung perkembangan ini, dan penemuan alfabet serta penggunaan dan adaptasinya untuk tujuan komersial membantu munculnya masyarakat dagang. Sebuah lukisan dinding di makam Mesir dari dinasti ke-18 menggambarkan tujuh kapal dagang Fenisia yang baru saja berlabuh di pelabuhan Mesir untuk menjual barang-barang mereka, termasuk guci anggur khas Kanaan tempat anggur, minuman asing bagi orang Mesir, diimpor. Kisah Wen-Amon menceritakan kisah seorang pedagang Fenisia, Werket-el dari Tanis di Delta Nil, yang merupakan pemilik "50 kapal" yang berlayar antara Tanis dan Sidon. Orang Sidon juga terkenal dalam puisi Homer sebagai pengrajin, pedagang, bajak laut, dan pedagang budak. Nabi Yehezkiel (pasal 27 dan 28), dalam kecaman terkenal tentang kota Tirus, membuat katalog luas perdagangannya, yang mencakup sebagian besar dunia yang dikenal saat itu.

Kapal Fenisia, Byblos, Phoenicia Maritima

oleh seniman master Lebanon Joseph Matar (Kunjungi situsnya, harus dilihat)

Catatan: Untuk melihat dari dekat bagian depan kapal, silakan klik kepala hippocampus (kuda laut) pada gambar di atas. (kembali ke halaman utama)

Ekspor Phoenicia secara keseluruhan termasuk khususnya kayu cedar dan pinus, linen halus dari Tyre, Byblos, dan Berytos, kain yang diwarnai dengan kain yang terkenal. ungu tyrian (terbuat dari siput Murex), sulaman dari Sidon, logam dan kaca, faience berglasir, anggur, garam, dan ikan kering. Mereka menerima bahan mentah sebagai gantinya, seperti papirus, gading, kayu hitam, sutra, amber, telur burung unta, rempah-rempah, dupa, kuda, emas, perak, tembaga, besi, timah, permata, dan batu mulia. Nama Byblos adalah papirus Yunani menerima nama Yunani awal (byblos, byblinos) dari yang diekspor ke Aegean melalui Byblos. Oleh karena itu kata bahasa Inggris Bible berasal dari byblos sebagai "the (papirus) buku."

Perdagangan Transit

Selain ekspor dan impor ini, Fenisia juga melakukan perdagangan transit yang penting, terutama dalam barang-barang manufaktur Mesir dan Babilonia (Herodotus, i, 1). Dari tanah Efrat dan Tigris rute perdagangan reguler mengarah ke Mediterania. Di Mesir para pedagang Fenisia segera memperoleh pijakan mereka sendiri mampu mempertahankan perdagangan yang menguntungkan di masa anarkis dari dinasti ke-22 dan ke-23 (c. 945-c. 730 SM). Meskipun tidak pernah ada koloni biasa Fenisia di Mesir, Tirus memiliki seperempat dari mereka sendiri di Memphis (Herodotus, ii, 112). Perdagangan karavan Arab dalam parfum, rempah-rempah, dan dupa melewati tangan Fenisia dalam perjalanannya ke Yunani dan Barat (Herodotus, iii, 107).

Navigasi dan Pelayaran

Untuk pembentukan supremasi komersial, konstituen penting adalah keterampilan Fenisia dalam navigasi dan pelayaran. Orang Fenisia adalah dikreditkan dengan penemuan dan penggunaan Polaris (bintang kutub). Navigator yang tak kenal takut dan sabar, mereka menjelajah ke daerah-daerah di mana tidak ada orang lain yang berani pergi, dan selalu, dengan memperhatikan monopoli mereka, mereka dengan hati-hati menjaga rahasia rute dan penemuan perdagangan mereka dan pengetahuan mereka tentang angin dan arus. Firaun Necho II (610-595 SM) terorganisir penjelajahan Fenisia di Afrika (Herodotus, iv, 42). Hanno, seorang Kartago, memimpin yang lain pada pertengahan abad ke-5. Orang-orang Kartago tampaknya telah mencapai pulau Corvo di Azores dan Inggris. Beberapa arkeolog menyarankan bahwa Fenisia mungkin telah mencapai Amerika sebelum Viking dan / atau Columbus? Hipotesis ini didasarkan pada prasasti yang ditemukan di Amerika (termasuk Brasil) dan tampaknya mewakili aksara Fenisia. Namun, yang lain menemukan hipotesis tidak berdasar.

Kapal, Navigasi dan Perdagangan, Diskusi Lanjut

Navigasi paling awal dengan menggunakan rakit dan kano

Upaya pertama orang Fenisia untuk mengarungi laut yang menyapu pantai mereka mungkin sama kikuk dan kasarnya dengan bangsa-bangsa primitif lainnya. Konon mereka berlayar dari pulau ke pulau dengan menggunakan rakit. 1 Ketika mereka mencapai pantai Laut Tengah, hampir tidak ada waktu lama sebelum mereka membuat perahu untuk tujuan memancing dan berlayar, meskipun tidak diragukan lagi perahu semacam itu memiliki konstruksi yang sangat kasar. Mungkin, seperti ras lainnya, mereka mulai dengan kano, yang dipahat secara kasar dari batang pohon. Aliran deras yang turun dari Lebanon dari waktu ke waktu akan meruntuhkan batang-batang pohon yang tumbang pada saat banjir dan ini, yang mengapung di perairan Mediterania, akan menyarankan gagasan navigasi. Mereka akan, pada awalnya, dilubangi dengan kapak dan kapak, atau dengan api dan, kemudian, sampan yang dihasilkan akan menjadi model untuk upaya paling awal dalam pembuatan kapal. Namun, panjang yang besar akan segera dianggap tidak perlu, dan kano akan digantikan oleh perahu, dalam penerimaan istilah yang biasa. Ada model perahu di antara sisa-sisa Fenisia yang memiliki karakter yang sangat kuno, 2 dan mungkin memberi kita gambaran tentang kapal yang digunakan orang Fenisia di masa yang lebih jauh untuk menghadapi bahaya di laut dalam. Mereka memiliki lunas, tidak berbentuk buruk, lambung bulat, benteng, paruh, dan kursi tinggi untuk pengemudi. Dayung, rupanya, harus melewati celah-celah di benteng.

Klik pada gambar kapal untuk melihat penampang

Model perahu yang sangat primitif

Dari bentuk kasar ini transisinya tidak terlalu sulit ke kulit kayu yang direpresentasikan dalam patung Sargon, 3 yang mungkin adalah patung Fenisia. Here four rowers, standing to their oars, impel a vessel having for prow the head of a horse and for stern the tail of a fish, both of them rising high above the water. The oars are curved, like golf or hockey-sticks, and are worked from the gunwale of the bark, though there is no indication of rowlocks. The vessel is without a rudder but it has a mast, supported by two ropes which are fastened to the head and stern. The mast has neither sail nor yard attached to it, but is crowned by what is called a "crow's nest"--a bell-shaped receptacle, from which a slinger or archer might discharge missiles against an enemy. 4

Phoenician vessel of the time of Sargon

A vessel of considerably greater size than this, but of the same class --impelled, that is, by one bank of oars only--is indicated by certain coins, which have been regarded by some critics as Phoenician, by others as belonging to Cilicia. 5 These have a low bow, but an elevated stern the prow exhibits a beak, while the stern shows signs of a steering apparatus the number of the oars on each side is fifteen or twenty. The Greeks called these vessels triaconters or penteconters. They are represented without any mast on the coins, and thus seem to have been merely row-boats of a superior character.

About the time of Sennacherib (B.C. 700), or a little earlier, some great advances seem to have been made by the Phoenician shipbuilders. In the first place, they introduced the practice of placing the rowers on two different levels, one above the other and thus, for a vessel of the same length, doubling the number of the rowers. Ships of this kind, which the Greeks called "biremes," are represented in Sennacherib's sculptures as employed by the inhabitants of a Phoenician city, who fly in them at the moment when their town is captured, and so escape their enemy. 6 The ships are of two kinds. Both kinds have a double tier of rowers, and both are guided by two steering oars thrust out from the stern but while the one is still without mast or sail, and is rounded off in exactly the same way both at stem and stern, the other has a mast, placed about midship, a yard hung across it, and a sail close reefed to the yard, while the bow is armed with a long projecting beak, like a ploughshare, which must have been capable of doing terrible damage to a hostile vessel. The rowers, in both classes of ships, are represented as only eight or ten upon a side but this may have arisen from artistic necessity, since a greater number of figures could not have been introduced without confusion. It is thought that in the beaked vessel we have a representation of the Phoenician war-galley in the vessel without a beak, one of the Phoenician transport. 7


Click on image of ship to view a cross-section

Phoenician pleasure vessels and merchant ships

A painting on a vase found in Cyprus exhibits what would seem to have been a pleasure-vessel. 8 It is unbeaked, and without any sign of oars, except two paddles for steering with. About midship is a short mast, crossed by a long spar or yard, which carries a sail, closely reefed along its entire length. The yard and sail are managed by means of four ropes, which are, however, somewhat conventionally depicted. Both the head and stern of the vessel rise to a considerable height above the water, and the stern is curved, very much as in the war- galleys. It perhaps terminated in the head of a bird.

According to the Greek writers, Phoenician vessels were mainly of two kinds, merchant ships and war-vessels. 9 The merchant ships were of a broad, round make, what our sailors would call "tubs," resembling probably the Dutch fishing-boats of a century ago. They were impelled both by oars and sails, but depended mainly on the latter. Each of them had a single mast of moderate height, to which a single sail was attached 10 this was what in modern times is called a "square sail," a form which is only well suited for sailing with when the wind is directly astern. It was apparently attached to the yard, and had to be hoisted together with the yard, along which it could be closely reefed, or from which it could be loosely shaken out. It was managed, no doubt, by ropes attached to the two lower corners, which must have been held in the hands of sailors, as it would have been most dangerous to belay them. As long as the wind served, the merchant captain used his sail when it died away, or became adverse, he dropped yard and sail on to his deck, and made use of his oars.

Merchant ships had, commonly, small boats attached to them, which afforded a chance of safety if the ship foundered, and were useful when cargoes had to be landed on a shelving shore. 11 We have no means of knowing whether these boats were hoisted up on deck until they were wanted, or attached to the ships by ropes and towed after them but the latter arrangement is the more probable.


Click on image of ship to view a cross-section

Superiority of the Phoenician war-galleys

The war-galleys of the Phoenicians in the early times were probably of the class which the Greeks called triaconters or penteconters, and which are represented upon the coins. They were long open rowboats, in which the rowers sat, all of them, upon a level, the number of rowers on either side being generally either fifteen or twenty-five. Each galley was armed at its head with a sharp metal spike, or beak, which was its chief weapon of offence, vessels of this class seeking commonly to run down their enemy. After a time these vessels were superseded by biremes, which were decked, had masts and sails, and were impelled by rowers sitting at two different elevations, as already explained. Biremes were ere long superseded by triremes, or vessels with three banks of oars, which are said to have been invented at Corinth, 12 but which came into use among the Phoenicians before the end of the sixth century B.C. 13 In the third century B.C. the Carthaginians employed in war quadriremes, and even quinqueremes but there is no evidence of the employment of either class of vessel by the Phoenicians of Phoenicia Proper.

The superiority of the Phoenician ships to others is generally allowed, and was clearly shown when Xerxes collected his fleet of twelve hundred and seven triremes against Greece. The fleet included contingents from Phoenicia, Cyprus, Egypt, Cilicia, Pamphylia, Lycia, Caria, Ionia, Æolis, and the Greek settlements about the Propontis. 14 When it reached the Hellespont, the great king, anxious to test the quality of his ships and sailors, made proclamation for a grand sailing match, in which all who liked might contend. Each contingent probably--at any rate, all that prided themselves on their nautical skill--selected its best vessel, and entered it for the coming race the king himself, and his grandees and officers, and all the army, stood or sat along the shore to see: the race took place, and was won by the Phoenicians of Sidon. 15 Having thus tested the nautical skill of the various nations under his sway, the great king, when he ventured his person upon the dangerous element, was careful to embark in a Sidonian galley. 16


Click on image of ship to view a cross-section

Excellence of the arrangements

A remarkable testimony to the excellence of the Phoenician ships with respect to internal arrangements is borne by Xenophon, who puts the following words into the mouth of Ischomachus, a Greek: 17 "I think that the best and most perfect arrangement of things that I ever saw was when I went to look at the great Phoenician sailing-vessel for I saw the largest amount of naval tackling separately disposed in the smallest stowage possible. For a ship, as you well know, is brought to anchor, and again got under way, by a vast number of wooden implements and of ropes and sails the sea by means of a quantity of rigging, and is armed with a number of contrivances against hostile vessels, and carries about with it a large supply of weapons for the crew, and, besides, has all the utensils that a man keeps in his dwelling-house, for each of the messes. In addition, it is laden with a quantity of merchandise which the owner carries with him for his own profit. Now all the things which I have mentioned lay in a space not much bigger than a room which would conveniently hold ten beds. And I remarked that they severally lay in a way that they did not obstruct one another, and did not require anyone to search for them and yet they were neither placed at random, nor entangled one with another, so as to consume time when they were suddenly wanted for use. Also, I found the captain's assistant, who is called 'the look-out man,' so well acquainted with the position of all the articles, and with the number of them, that even when at a distance he could tell where everything lay, and how many there were of each sort, just as anyone who has learnt to read can tell the number of letters in the name of Socrates and the proper place for each of them. Moreover, I saw this man, in his leisure moments, examining and testing everything that a vessel needs when at sea so, as I was surprised, I asked him what he was about, whereupon he replied--'Stranger, I am looking to see, in case anything should happen, how everything is arranged in the ship, and whether anything is wanting, or is inconveniently situated for when a storm arises at sea, it is not possible either to look for what is wanting, or to put to right what is arranged awkwardly.'"

Patæci

Phoenician ships seem to have been placed under the protection of the Cabeiri, and to have had images of them at their stem or stern or both. 18 These images were not exactly "figure-heads," as they are sometimes called. They were small, apparently, and inconspicuous, being little dwarf figures, regarded as amulets that would preserve the vessel in safety. We do not see them on any representations of Phoenician ships, and it is possible that they may have been no larger than the bronze or glazed earthenware images of Phthah that are so common in Egypt. The Phoenicians called them /pittuchim/, "sculptures," 19 whence the Greek and the French /fétiche/.

Early navigation cautious, increasing boldness

The navigation of the Phoenicians, in early times, was no doubt cautious and timid. So far from venturing out of sight of land, they usually hugged the coast, ready at any moment, if the sea or sky threatened, to change their course and steer directly for the shore. On a shelving coast they were not at all afraid to run their ships aground, since, like the Greek vessels, they could be easily pulled up out of reach of the waves, and again pulled down and launched, when the storm was over and the sea calm once more. At first they sailed, we may be sure, only in the daytime, casting anchor at nightfall, or else dragging their ships up upon the beach, and so awaiting the dawn. But after a time they grew more bold. The sea became familiar to them, the positions of coasts and islands relatively one to another better known, the character of the seasons, the signs of unsettled or settled weather, the conduct to pursue in an emergency, better apprehended. They soon began to shape the course of their vessels from headland to headland, instead of always creeping along the shore, and it was not perhaps very long before they would venture out of sight of land, if their knowledge of the weather satisfied them that the wind might be trusted to continue steady, and if they were well assured of the direction of the land that they wished to make. They took courage, moreover, to sail in the night, no less than in the daytime, when the weather was clear, guiding themselves by the stars, and particularly by the Polar star, 20 which they discovered to be the star most nearly marking the true north. A passage of Strabo 21 seems to show that--in the later times at any rate--they had a method of calculating the rate of a ship's sailing, though what the method was is wholly unknown to us. It is probable that they early constructed charts and maps, which however they would keep secret through jealousy of their commercial rivals.

Furthest ventures

The Phoenicians for some centuries confined their navigation within the limits of the Mediterranean, the Propontis, and the Euxine, land- locked seas, which are tideless and far less rough than the open ocean. But before the time of Solomon they had passed the Pillars of Hercules, and affronted the dangers of the Atlantic. 22 Their frail and small vessels, scarcely bigger than modern fishing-smacks, proceeded southwards along the West African coast, as far as the tract watered by the Gambia and Senegal, while northwards they coasted along Spain, braved the heavy seas of the Bay of Biscay, and passing Cape Finisterre, ventured across the mouth of the English Channel to the Cassiterides. Similarly, from the West African shore, they boldly steered for the Fortunate Islands (the Canaries), visible from certain elevated points of the coast, though at 170 miles distance. Whether they proceeded further, in the south to the Azores, Madeira, and the Cape de Verde Islands, in the north to the coast of Holland, and across the German Ocean to the Baltic, we regard as uncertain. It is possible that from time to time some of the more adventurous of their traders may have reached thus far but their regular, settled, and established navigation did not, we believe, extend beyond the Scilly Islands and coast of Cornwall to the north-west, and to the south-west Cape Non and the Canaries. Some theories suggest that the Phoenicians reached the Americas (including Brazil).

Extent of the Phoenician land commerce

The commerce of the Phoenicians was carried on, to a large extent, by land, though principally by sea. It appears from the famous chapter of Ezekiel 23 which describes the riches and greatness of Tyre in the sixth century B.C., that almost the whole of Western Asia was penetrated by the Phoenician caravans, and laid under contribution to increase the wealth of the Phoenician traders.

Witness of Ezekiel

"Thou, son of man, (we read) take up a lamentation for Tyre, and say unto her, O thou that dwellest at the entry of the sea, Which art the merchant of the peoples unto many isles, Thus saith the Lord God, Thou, O Tyre, hast said, I am perfect in beauty. Thy borders are in the heart of the sea Thy builders have perfected thy beauty. They have made all thy planks of fir-trees from Senir They have taken cedars from Lebanon to make a mast for thee Of the oaks of Bashan have they made thine oars They have made thy benches of ivory, Inlaid in box-wood, from the isles of Kittim. Of fine linen with broidered work from Egypt was thy sail, That it might be to thee for an ensign Blue and purple from the isles of Elishah was thy awning. The inhabitants of Zidon and of Arvad were thy rowers Thy wise men, O Tyre, were in thee--they were thy pilots. The ancients of Gebal, and their wise men, were thy calkers All the ships of the sea, with their mariners, were in thee, That they might occupy thy merchandise. Persia, and Lud, and Phut were in thine army, thy men of war They hanged the shield and helmet in thee They set forth thy comeliness. The men of Arvad, with thine army, were upon thy walls round about And the Gammadim were in thy towers They hanged their shields upon thy walls round about They have brought to perfection thy beauty. Tarshish was thy merchant by reason of the multitude of all kinds of riches With silver, iron, tin, and lead, they traded for thy wares. Javan, Tubal, and Meshech, they were thy traffickers They traded the persons of men, and vessels of brass, for thy merchandise. They of the house of Togarmah traded for thy wares, With horses, and with chargers, and with mules. The men of Dedan were thy traffickers many isles were the mart of thy hands They brought thee in exchange horns of ivory, and ebony. Syria was thy merchant by reason of the multitude of thy handiworks They traded for thy wares with emeralds, purple, and broidered work, And with fine linen, and coral, and rubies. Judah, and the land of Israel, they were thy traffickers They traded for thy merchandise wheat of Minnith, And Pannag, and honey, and oil, and balm. Damascus was thy merchant for the multitude of thy handiworks By reason of the multitude of all kinds of riches With the wine of Helbon, and white wool. Dedan and Javan traded with yarn for thy wares Bright iron, and cassia, and calamus were among thy merchandise. Dedan was thy trafficker in precious cloths for riding Arabia, and all the princes of Kedar, they were the merchants of thy hand, In lambs, and rams, and goats, in these were they thy merchants. The traffickers of Sheba and Raamah, they were thy traffickers They traded for thy wares with chief of all spices, And with all manner of precious stones, and gold. Haran, and Canneh, and Eden, the traffickers of Sheba, Asshur and Chilmad, were thy traffickers: They were thy traffickers in choice wares, In wrappings of blue and broidered work, and in chests of rich apparel, Bound with cords, and made of cedar, among thy merchandise. The ships of Tarshish were thy caravans for they merchandise And thou wast replenished, and made very glorious, in the heart of the sea. Thy rowers have brought thee into great waters The east wind hath broken thee in the heart of the sea. Thy reaches, and thy wares, thy merchandise, thy mariners, and thy pilots, Thy calkers, and the occupiers of thy merchandise, With all the men of war, that are in thee, Shall fall into the heart of the seas in the day of thy ruin. At the sound of thy pilot's cry the suburb's shall shake And all that handle the oar, the mariners, and all the pilots of the sea, They shall come down from their ships, they shall stand upon the land, And shall cause their voice to be heard over thee, and shall cry bitterly, And shall cast up dust upon their heads, and wallow in the ashes And they shall make themselves bald for thee, and gird them with sackcloth, And they shall weep for thee in bitterness of soul with bitter mourning. And in their wailing they shall take up a lamentation for thee, And lament over thee saying, Who is there like Tyre, Like her that is brought to silence in the midst of the sea? When thy wares went forth out of the seas, thou filledst many peoples Thou didst enrich the kings of the earth with thy merchandise and thy riches. In the time that thou was broken by the seas in the depths of the waters, Thy merchandise, and all thy company, did fall in the midst of thee, And the inhabitants of the isles are astonished at thee, And their kings are sore afraid, they are troubled in their countenance, The merchants that are among the peoples, hiss at thee Thou art become a terror and thou shalt never be any more."

Wares imported, caravans

Translating this glorious burst of poetry into prose, we find the following countries mentioned as carrying on an active trade with the Phoenician metropolis:--Northern Syria, Syria of Damascus, Judah and the land of Israel, Egypt, Arabia, Babylonia, Assyria, Upper Mesopotamia, 24 Armenia, 25 Central Asia Minor, Ionia, Cyprus, Hellas or Greece, 26 and Spain. 27 Northern Syria furnishes the Phoenician merchants with /butz/, which is translated "fine linen," but is perhaps rather cotton, 28 the "tree-wool" of Herodotus it also supplies embroidery, and certain precious stones, which our translators have considered to be coral, emeralds, and rubies. Syria of Damascus gives the "wine of Helbon"--that exquisite liquor which was the only sort that the Persian kings would condescend to drink 29 --and "white wool," the dainty fleeces of the sheep and lambs that fed on the upland pastures of Hermon and Antilibanus. Judah and the land of Israel supply corn of superior quality, called "corn of Minnith"-- corn, i.e. produced in the rich Ammonite country 30 --together with /pannag/, an unknown substance, and honey, and balm, and oil. Egypt sends fine linen, one of her best known products 31 --sometimes, no doubt, plain, but often embroidered with bright patterns, and employed as such embroidered fabrics were also in Egypt, 32 for the sails of pleasure-boats. Arabia provides her spices, cassia, and calamus (or aromatic reed), and, beyond all doubt, frankincense, 33 and perhaps cinnamon and ladanum. 34 She also supplies wool and goat's hair, and cloths for chariots, and gold, and wrought iron, and precious stones, and ivory, and ebony, of which the last two cannot have been productions of her own, but must have been imported from India or Abyssinia. 35 Babylonia and Assyria furnish "wrappings of blue, embroidered work, and chests of rich apparel." 36 Upper Mesopotamia partakes in this traffic. 37 Armenia gives horses and mules. Central Asia Minor (Tubal and Meshech) supplies slaves and vessels of brass, and the Greeks of Ionia do the like. Cyprus furnishes ivory, which she must first have imported from abroad. 38 Greece Proper sends her shell-fish, to enable the Phoenician cities to increase their manufacture of the purple dye. 39 Finally, Spain yields silver, iron, tin, and lead--the most useful of the metals--all of which she is known to have produced in abundance. 40

Description of the land trade

With the exception of Egypt, Ionia, Cyprus, Hellas, and Spain, the Phoenician intercourse with these places must have been carried on wholly by land. Even with Egypt, wherewith the communication by sea was so facile, there seems to have been also from a very early date a land commerce. The land commerce was in every case carried on by caravans. Western Asia has never yet been in so peaceful and orderly condition as to dispense prudent traders from the necessity of joining together in large bodies, well provisioned and well armed, when they are about to move valuable goods any considerable distance. There have always been robber-tribes in the mountain tracts, and thievish Arabs upon the plains, ready to pounce on the insufficiently protected traveller, and to despoil him of all his belongings. Hence the necessity of the caravan traffic. As early as the time of Joseph-- probably about B.C. 1600--we find a /company/ of the Midianites on their way from Gilead, with their camels bearing spicery, and balm, and myrrh, going to carry it down to Egypt. 41 Elsewhere we hear of the "travelling /companies/ of the Dedanim," 42 of the men of Sheba bringing their gold and frankincense 43 of a multitude of camels coming up to Palestine with wood from Kedar and Nebaioth. 44 Heerenis entirely justified in his conclusion that the land trade of the Phoenicians was conducted by "large companies or caravans, since it could only have been carried on in this way." 45

The nearest neighbours of the Phoenicians on the land side were the Jews and Israelites, the Syrians of Damascus, and the people of Northern Syria, or the Orontes valley and the tract east of it. From the Jews and Israelites the Phoenicians seem to have derived at all times almost the whole of the grain which they were forced to import for their sustenance. In the time of David and Solomon it was chiefly for wheat and barley that they exchanged the commodities which they exported, 46 in that of Ezekiel it was primarily for "wheat of Minnith" 47 and a similar trade is noted on the return of the Jews from the captivity, 48 and in the first century of our era. 49 But besides grain they also imported from Palestine at some periods wine, oil, honey, balm, and oak timber. 50 Western Palestine was notoriously a land not only of corn, but also of wine, of olive oil, and of honey, and could readily impart of its superfluity to its neighbour in time of need. The oaks of Bashan are very abundant, and seem to have been preferred by the Phoenicians to their own oaks as the material of oars. 51 Balm, or basalm, was a product of the land of Gilead, 52 and also of the lower Jordan valley, where it was of superior quality. 53

From the Damascene Syrians we are told that Phoenicia imported "wine of Helbon" and "white wool." 54 The "wine of Helbon" is reasonably identified with that which is said to have been the favourite beverage of the Persian kings. 55 It was perhaps grown in the neighbourhood of Aleppo. 56 The "white wool" may have been furnished by the sheep that cropped the slopes of the Antilibanus, or by those fed on the fine grass which clothes most of the plain at its base. The fleece of these last is, according to Heeren, 57 "the finest known, being improved by the heat of the climate, the continual exposure to the open air, and the care commonly bestowed upon the flocks." From the Syrian wool, mixed perhaps with some other material, seems to have been woven the fabric known, from the city where it was commonly made, 58 as "damask."

According to the existing text of Ezekiel, 59 Syria Proper "occupied in the fairs" of Phoenicia with cotton, with embroidered robes, with purple, and with precious stones. The valley of the Orontes is suitable for the cultivation of cotton and embroidered robes would naturally be produced in the seat of an old civilisation, which Syria certainly was. Purple seems somewhat out of place in the enumeration but the Syrians may have gathered the /murex/ on their seaboard between Mt. Casius and the Gulf of Issus, and have sold what they collected in the Phoenician market. The precious stones which Ezekiel assigns to them are difficult of identification, but may have been furnished by Casius, Bargylus, or Amanus. These mountains, or at any rate Casius and Amanus, are of igneous origin, and, if carefully explored, would certainly yield gems to the investigator. At the same time it must be acknowledged that Syria had not, in antiquity, the name of a gem-producing country and, so far, the reading of "Edom" for "Aram," which is preferred by many, 60 may seem to be the more probable.

The commerce of the Phoenicians with Egypt was ancient, and very extensive. "The wares of Egypt" are mentioned by Herodotus as a portion of the merchandise which they brought to Greece before the time of the Trojan War. 61 The Tyrians had a quarter in the city of Memphis assigned to them, 62 probably from an early date. According to Ezekiel, the principal commodity which Egypt furnished to Phoenicia was "fine linen" 63 --especially the linen sails embroidered with gay patterns, which the Egyptian nobles affected for their pleasure-boats. They probably also imported from Egypt natron for their glass-works, papyrus for their documents, earthenware of various kinds for exportation, scarabs and other seals, statuettes and figures of gods, amulets, and in the later times sarcophagi. 64 Their exports to Egypt consisted of wine on a large scale, 65 tin almost certainly, and probably their peculiar purple fabrics, and other manufactured articles.

The Phoenician trade with Arabia was of especial importance, since not only did the great peninsula itself produce many of the most valuable articles of commerce, but it was also mainly, if not solely, through Arabia that the Indian market was thrown open to the Phoenician traders, and the precious commodities obtained for which Hindustan has always been famous. Arabia is /par excellence/ the land of spices, and was the main source from which the ancient world in general, and Phoenicia in particular, obtained frankincense, cinnamon, cassia, myrrh, calamus or sweet-cane, and ladanum. 66 It has been doubted whether these commodities were, all of them, the actual produce of the country in ancient times, and Herodotus has been in some degree discredited, but perhaps without sufficient reason. He is supported to a considerable extent by Theophrastus, the disciple of Aristotle, who says: 67 "Frankincense, myrrh, and cassia grow in the Arabian districts of Saba and Hadramaut frankincense and myrrh on the sides or at the foot of mountains, and in the neighbouring islands. The trees which produce them grow sometimes wild, though occasionally they are cultivated and the frankincense-tree grows sometimes taller than the tree producing the myrrh." Modern authorities declare the frankincense-tree (/Boswellia thurifera/) to be still a native of Hadramaut 68 and there is no doubt that the myrrh-tree (/Balsamodendron myrrha/) also grows there. If cinnamon and cassia, as the terms are now understood, do not at present grow in Arabia, or nearer to Phoenicia than Hindustan, it may be that they have died out in the former country, or our modern use of the terms may differ from the ancient one. On the other hand, it is no doubt possible that the Phoenicians imagined all the spices which they obtained from Arabia to be the indigenous growth of the country, when in fact some of them were importations.

Next to her spices, Arabia was famous for the production of a superior quality of wool. The Phoenicians imported this wool largely. The flocks of Kedar are especially noted, 69 and are said to have included both sheep and goats. 70 It was perhaps a native woollen manufacture, in which Dedan traded with Tyre, and which Ezekiel notices as a trade in "cloths for chariots." 71 Goat's hair was largely employed in the production of coverings for tents. 72 Arabia also furnished Phoenicia with gold, with precious stones, with ivory, ebony, and wrought iron. 73 The wrought iron was probably from Yemen, which was celebrated for its manufacture of sword blades. The gold may have been native, for there is much reason to believe that anciently the Arabian mountain ranges yielded gold as freely as the Ethiopian, 74 with which they form one system or it may have been imported from Hindustan, with which Arabia had certainly, in ancient times, constant communication. Ivory and ebony must, beyond a doubt, have been Arabian importations. There are two countries from which they may have been derived, India and Abyssinia. It is likely that the commercial Arabs of the south-east coast had dealings with both. 75

Of Phoenician imports into Arabia we have no account but we may conjecture that they consisted principally of manufactured goods, cotton and linen fabrics, pottery, implements and utensils in metal, beads, and other ornaments for the person, and the like. The nomadic Arabs, leading a simple life, required but little beyond what their own country produced there was, however, a town population 76 in the more southern parts of the peninsula, to which the elegancies and luxuries of life, commonly exported by Phoenicia, would have been welcome.

The Phoenician trade with Babylonia and Assyria was carried on probably by caravans, which traversed the Syrian desert by way of Tadmor or Palmyra, and struck the Euphrates about Circesium. Here the route divided, passing to Babylon southwards along the course of the great river, and to Nineveh eastwards by way of the Khabour and the Sinjar mountain-range. Both countries seem to have supplied the Phoenicians with fabrics of extraordinary value, rich in a peculiar embroidery, and deemed so precious that they were packed in chests of cedar-wood, which the Phoenician merchants must have brought with them from Lebanon. 77 The wares furnished by Assyria were in some cases exported to Greece, 78 while no doubt in others they were intended for home consumption. They included cylinders in rock crystal, jasper, hematite, steatite, and other materials, which may sometimes have found purchasers in Phoenicia Proper, but appear to have been specially affected by the Phoenician colonists in Cyprus. 79 On her part Phoenicia must have imported into Assyria and Babylonia the tin which was a necessary element in their bronze and they seem also to have found a market in Assyria for their own most valuable and artistic bronzes, the exquisite embossed pateræ which are among the most precious of the treasures brought by Sir Austen Layard from Nineveh. 80

The nature of the Phoenician trade with Upper Mesopotamia is unknown to us and it is not impossible that their merchants visited Haran, 81 rather because it lay on the route which they had to follow in order to reach Armenia than because it possessed in itself any special attraction for them. Gall-nuts and manna are almost the only products for which the region is celebrated and of these Phoenicia herself produced the one, while she probably did not need the other. But the natural route to Armenia was by way of the Cœlesyrian valley, Aleppo and Carchemish, to Haran, and thence by Amida or Diarbekr to Van, which was the capital of Armenia in the early times.

Armenia supplied the Phoenicians with "horses of common and of noble breeds," 82 and also with mules. 83 Strabo says that it was a country exceedingly well adapted for the breeding of the horse, 84 and even notes the two qualities of the animal that it produced, one of which he calls "Nisæan," though the true "Nisæan plain" was in Media. So large was the number of colts bred each year, and so highly were they valued, that, under the Persian monarchy the Great King exacted from the province, as a regular item of its tribute, no fewer than twenty thousand of them annually. 85 Armenian mules seem not to be mentioned by any writer besides Ezekiel but mules were esteemed throughout the East in antiquity, 86 and no country would have been more likely to breed them than the mountain tract of Armenia, the Switzerland of Western Asia, where such surefooted animals would be especially needed.

Armenia adjoined the country of the Moschi and Tibareni--the Meshech and Tubal of the Bible. These tribes, between the ninth and the seventh centuries B.C., inhabited the central regions of Asia Minor and the country known later as Cappadocia. They traded with Tyre in the "persons of men" and in "vessels of brass" or copper. 87 Copper is found abundantly in the mountain ranges of these parts, and Xenophon remarks on the prevalence of metal vessels in the portion of the region which he passed through--the country of the Carduchians. 88 The traffic in slaves was one in which the Phoenicians engaged from very early times. They were not above kidnapping men, women, and children in one country and selling them into another 89 besides which they seem to have frequented regularly the principal slave marts of the time. They bought such Jews as were taken captive and sold into slavery by the neighbouring nations, 90 and they looked to the Moschi and Tibareni for a constant supply of the commodity from the Black Sea region. 91 The Caucasian tribes have always been in the habit of furnishing slave-girls to the harems of the East, and the Thracians, who were not confined to Europe, but occupied a great part of Asia Minor, regularly trafficked in their children. 92

Such was the extent of the Phoenician land trade, as indicated by the prophet Ezekiel, and such were, so far as is at present known, the commodities interchanged in the course of it. It is quite possible-- nay, probable--that the trade extended much further, and certain that it must have included many other articles of commerce besides those which we have mentioned. The sources of our information on the subject are so few and scanty, and the notices from which we derive our knowledge for the most part so casual, that we may be sure what is preserved is but a most imperfect record of what was--fragments of wreck recovered from the sea of oblivion. It may have been a Phoenician caravan route which Herodotus describes as traversed on one occasion by the Nasamonians, 93 which began in North Africa and terminated with the Niger and the city of Timbuctoo and another, at which he hints as lying between the coast of the Lotus-eaters and Fezzan. 94 Phoenician traders may have accompanied and stimulated the slave hunts of the Garamantians, 95 as Arab traders do those of the Central African nations at the present day. Again, it is quite possible that the Phoenicians of Memphis designed and organised the caravans which, proceeding from Egyptian Thebes, traversed Africa from east to west along the line of the "Salt Hills," by way of Ammon, Augila, Fezzan, and the Tuarik country to Mount Atlas. 96 We can scarcely imagine the Egyptians showing so much enterprise. But these lines of traffic can be ascribed to the Phoenicians only by conjecture, history being silent on the subject.

Sea trade of Phoenicia

1. With her own colonies

The sea trade of the Phoenicians was still more extensive than their land traffic. It is divisible into two branches, their trade with their own colonists, and that with the natives of the various countries to which they penetrated in their voyages. The colonies sent out from Phoenicia were, except in the single instance of Carthage, trading settlements, planted where some commodity or commodities desired by the mother-country abounded, and were intended to secure to the mother-country the monopoly of such commodity or commodities. For instance, Cyprus was colonised for the sake of its copper mines and its timber Cilicia and Lycia for their timber only Thasos for its gold mines Salamis and Cythera for the purple trade Sardinia and Spain for their numerous metals North Africa for its fertility and for the trade with the interior. Phoenicia expected to derive, primarily, from each colony the commodity or commodities which had caused the selection of the site. In return she supplied the colonists with her own manufactured articles with fabrics in linen, wool, cotton, and perhaps to some extent in silk with every variety of pottery, from dishes and jugs of the plainest and most simple kind to the most costly and elaborate vases and amphoræ with metal utensils and arms, with gold and silver ornaments, with embossed shields and pateræ, with faïnce and glass, and also with any foreign products or manufactures that they desired and that the countries within the range of her influence could furnish. Phoenicia must have imported into Cyprus, to suit a peculiar Cyprian taste, the Egyptian statuettes, scarabs, and rings, 97 and the Assyrian and Babylonian cylinders, which have been found there. The tin which she brought from the Cassiterides she distributed generally, for she did not discourage her colonists from manufacturing for themselves to some extent. There was probably no colony which did not make its own bronze vessels of the commoner sort and its own coarser pottery.

2. With foreigners, Mediterranean and Black Sea trade

In her trade with the nations who peopled the coasts of the Mediterranean, the Propontis, and the Black Sea, Phoenicia aimed primarily at disposing to advantage of her own commodities, secondarily at making a profit in commodities which she had obtained from other countries, and thirdly on obtaining commodities which she might dispose of to advantage elsewhere. Where the nations were uncivilised, or in a low condition of civilisation, she looked to making a large profit by furnishing them at a cheap rate with all the simplest conveniences of life, with their pottery, their implements and utensils, their clothes, their arms, the ornaments of their persons and of their houses. Underselling the native producers, she soon obtained a monopoly of this kind of trade, drove the native products out of the market, and imposed her own instead, much as the manufacturers of Manchester, Birmingham, and the Potteries impose their calicoes, their cutlery, and their earthenware on the savages of Africa and Polynesia. Where culture was more advanced, as in Greece and parts of Italy, 98 she looked to introduce, and no doubt succeeded in introducing, the best of her own productions, fabrics of crimson, violet, and purple, painted vases, embossed pateræ, necklaces, bracelets, rings--"cunning work" of all manner of kinds 99 --mirrors, glass vessels, and smelling-bottles. At the same time she also disposed at a profit of many of the wares that she had imported from foreign countries, which were advanced in certain branches of art, as Egypt, Babylonia, Assyria, possibly India. The muslins and ivory of Hindustan, the shawls of Kashmir, the carpets of Babylon, the spices of Araby the Blest, the pearls of the Persian Gulf, the faïence and the papyrus of Egypt, would be readily taken by the more civilised of the Western nations, who would be prepared to pay a high price for them. They would pay for them partly, no doubt, in silver and gold, but to some extent also in their own manufactured commodities, Attica in her ceramic products, Corinth in her "brass," Etruria in her candelabra and engraved mirrors, 100 Argos in her highly elaborated ornaments. 101 Or, in some cases, they might make return out of the store wherewith nature had provided them, Eubœa rendering her copper, the Peloponnese her "purple," Crete her timber, the Cyrenaica its silphium.

North Atlantic trade

Outside the Pillars of Hercules the Phoenicians had only savage nations to deal with, and with these they seem to have traded mainly for the purpose of obtaining certain natural products, either peculiarly valuable or scarcely procurable elsewhere. Their trade with the Scilly Islands and the coast of Cornwall was especially for the procuring of tin. Of all the metals, tin is found in the fewest places, and though Spain seems to have yielded some anciently, 102 yet it can only have been in small quantities, while there was an enormous demand for tin in all parts of the old world, since bronze was the material almost universally employed for arms, tools, implements, and utensils of all kinds, while tin is the most important, though not the largest, element in bronze. From the time that the Phoenicians discovered the Scilly Islands--the "Tin Islands" (Cassiterides), as they called them --it is probable that the tin of the civilised world was almost wholly derived from this quarter. Eastern Asia, no doubt, had always its own mines, and may have exported tin to some extent, in the remoter times, supplying perhaps the needs of Egypt, Assyria, and Babylon. But, after the rich stores of the metal which our own islands possess were laid open, and the Phoenicians with their extensive commercial dealings, both in the West and in the East, became interested in diffusing it, British tin probably drove all other out of use, and obtained the monopoly of the markets wherever Phoenician influence prevailed. Hence the trade with the Cassiterides was constant, and so highly prized that a Phoenician captain, finding his ship followed by a Roman vessel, preferred running it upon the rocks to letting a rival nation learn the secret of how the tin-producing coast might be approached in safety. 103 With the tin it was usual for the merchants to combine a certain amount of lead and a certain quantity of skins or hides while they gave in exchange pottery, salt, and articles in bronze, such as arms, implements, and utensils for cooking and for the table. 104

If the Phoenicians visited, as some maintain that they did, 105 the coasts of the Baltic, it must have been for the purpose of obtaining amber. Amber is thrown up largely by the waters of that land-locked sea, and at present especially abounds on the shore in the vicinity of Dantzic. It is very scarce elsewhere. The Phoenicians seem to have made use of amber in their necklaces from a very early date 106 and, though they might no doubt have obtained it by land-carriage across Europe to the head of the Adriatic, yet their enterprise and their commercial spirit were such as would not improbably have led them to seek to open a direct communication with the amber-producing region, so soon as they knew where it was situated. The dangers of the German Ocean are certainly not greater than those of the Atlantic and if the Phoenicians had sufficient skill in navigation to reach Britain and the Fortunate Islands, they could have found no very serious difficulty in penetrating to the Baltic. On the other hand, there is no direct evidence of their having penetrated so far, and perhaps the Adriatic trade may have supplied them with as much amber as they needed.


The Tin Route

The Tin Route was a major road from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age, making it possible for people to transport tin. Metal-making required tin for making bronze, because it made it stronger. Cornwall di barat daya Inggris memiliki tambang timah. Rute Timah menghubungkan Cornwall melalui Prancis, Yunani, dan sekitarnya. Sejarawan menemukan Jalur Timah karena benteng-benteng bukit yang dibangun di sepanjang jalur tersebut, digunakan sebagai pos perdagangan. Tidak ada catatan tertulis yang tersisa untuk dipelajari, tetapi catatan arkeologi menunjukkan bahwa seni dan teknologi pada masa itu juga bergerak di sepanjang Rute Timah.


Tonton videonya: Khairuddin Barbarossa, Pelaut muslim berdarah Turky