Peta Kerugian Wilayah Jerman

Peta Kerugian Wilayah Jerman


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  • Area putih menunjukkan negara-negara yang tetap netral selama Perang Dunia I.
  • Area merah, yang dibahas di bawah, adalah area yang diserahkan oleh Jerman berdasarkan ketentuan Perjanjian Versailles.

Penyesuaian teritorial utama Eropa yang dibuat pada tahun 1919 termasuk yang berikut:

  • Distrik-distrik Eupen dan Malmédy telah menjadi bagian dari Prusia, dan kemudian Jerman, sejak akhir Perang Napoleon. Mereka diberikan kepada Belgia pada Konferensi Perdamaian Paris untuk tujuan meningkatkan pertahanan Belgia terhadap kemungkinan agresi Jerman di masa depan.
  • Cekungan Saar, wilayah yang sebagian besar berbahasa Jerman, telah lama diperebutkan antara Prancis dan berbagai negara bagian Jerman. Ini menjadi semakin penting di akhir abad ke-19 ketika ladang batu baranya yang luas membantu mendorong pengembangan industri Jerman. Perjanjian Versailles membuat Saar menjadi entitas otonom, tetapi Prancis diberikan kontrol administratif dan diberi wewenang untuk mengeksploitasi deposit batu baranya. Sebuah plebisit dijadwalkan pada tahun 1935, ketika kesetiaan utama daerah itu akan ditentukan.
  • Bagian dari provinsi Alsace dan Lorraine dianeksasi oleh Jerman setelah Perang Prancis-Prusia (1871), menciptakan sumber lamantation besar di Prancis selama lebih dari 40 tahun. Perjanjian Versailles mengembalikan daerah itu ke Prancis.
  • Sebuah daerah yang dikenal sebagai Koridor Polandia diukir dari Prusia Barat oleh ketentuan Perjanjian Versailles dengan tujuan memberikan akses langsung ke laut kepada Polandia yang baru dibentuk. Dihuni terutama oleh penduduk berbahasa Polandia, daerah tersebut juga berisi minoritas besar masyarakat berbahasa Jerman. Lebar koridor berkisar antara 20 hingga 70 mil, tetapi tidak termasuk kota Danzig (Gdask) di Laut Baltik dan beberapa komunitas sekitarnya. Orang Jerman diizinkan untuk lewat dengan bebas ke dan dari Prusia Timur.
  • Danzig (sekarang Gdask atau Gdansk, Polandia) dijadikan Kota Bebas oleh Perjanjian Versailles dan akan dikelola oleh Liga Bangsa-Bangsa.
  • meme (Memelland bagi Jerman) adalah sebuah distrik Prusia Timur di pantai Baltik, tetapi ketentuan perjanjian tahun 1919 menempatkan Memel di bawah yurisdiksi Liga Bangsa-Bangsa, yang memberikan kontrol administratif kepada Prancis. Pada tahun 1923, pasukan Lituania memaksa Prancis keluar dan Memel kemudian menjadi distrik otonom di Lituania.

Lihat diskusi umum tentang Perjanjian Versailles.


Bagaimana Perjanjian Versailles dan Rasa Bersalah Jerman Menyebabkan Perang Dunia II

Ketika Jerman menandatangani gencatan senjata yang mengakhiri permusuhan dalam Perang Dunia Pertama pada 11 November 1918, para pemimpinnya percaya bahwa mereka menerima “perdamaian tanpa kemenangan,” sebagaimana digariskan oleh Presiden AS Woodrow Wilson dalam Fourteen Points-nya yang terkenal. Tetapi sejak para pemimpin negara-negara Sekutu yang menang tiba di Prancis untuk konferensi perdamaian pada awal 1919, realitas pascaperang mulai menyimpang tajam dari visi idealis Wilson.

Lima bulan kemudian, pada 28 Juni2014tepat lima tahun setelah pembunuhan Archduke Franz Ferdinand dan istrinya di Sarajevo para pemimpin Sekutu dan kekuatan terkait, serta perwakilan dari Jerman, berkumpul di Aula Cermin di Istana Versailles untuk menandatangani perjanjian terakhir. Dengan menempatkan beban kesalahan perang sepenuhnya pada Jerman, memaksakan pembayaran reparasi yang keras dan menciptakan kumpulan negara-negara kecil di Eropa yang semakin tidak stabil, perjanjian itu pada akhirnya akan gagal menyelesaikan masalah mendasar yang menyebabkan pecahnya perang pada tahun 1914, dan membantu membuka jalan bagi Jerman. jalan untuk konflik global besar lainnya 20 tahun kemudian.

Konferensi Perdamaian Paris: Tak satu pun dari negara-negara yang dikalahkan ikut campur, dan bahkan kekuatan Sekutu yang lebih kecil tidak banyak bicara.
Negosiasi perdamaian resmi dibuka di Paris pada 18 Januari 1919, peringatan penobatan Kaisar Jerman Wilhelm I pada akhir Perang Prancis-Prusia tahun 1871. Perang Dunia I telah memunculkan kenangan menyakitkan dari konflik itu—yang berakhir di Jerman. penyatuan dan perebutan provinsi Alsace dan Lorraine dari Prancis dan sekarang Prancis bermaksud membuat Jerman membayar.

Para pemimpin 𠇋ig Four” dari negara-negara Sekutu yang menang (Woodrow Wilson dari Amerika Serikat, David Lloyd George dari Inggris Raya, Georges Clemenceau dari Prancis dan, pada tingkat lebih rendah, Vittorio Orlando dari Italia) mendominasi negosiasi perdamaian. Tak satu pun dari negara-negara yang kalah diundang untuk mempertimbangkan, dan bahkan kekuatan Sekutu yang lebih kecil tidak banyak bicara. Meskipun Perjanjian Versailles, yang ditandatangani dengan Jerman pada bulan Juni 1919, adalah hasil paling terkenal dari Konferensi Perdamaian Paris, Sekutu juga memiliki perjanjian terpisah dengan Austria, Bulgaria, Hongaria dan Turki, dan proses perdamaian formal belum selesai sampai penandatanganan Perjanjian Lausanne pada Juli 1923.

Pejabat Pemerintah Merancang Ketentuan Perjanjian Versailles. (Sumber: Bettmann/Getty Images)

Perjanjian itu panjang, dan akhirnya tidak memuaskan negara mana pun.
Perjanjian Versailles memaksa Jerman untuk menyerahkan wilayahnya kepada Belgia, Cekoslowakia dan Polandia, mengembalikan Alsace dan Lorraine ke Prancis dan menyerahkan semua koloninya di luar negeri di Cina, Pasifik, dan Afrika kepada negara-negara Sekutu. Selain itu, ia harus secara drastis mengurangi angkatan bersenjatanya dan menerima demiliterisasi dan pendudukan Sekutu di wilayah sekitar Sungai Rhine. Yang paling penting, Pasal 231 dari perjanjian itu menyalahkan semua pihak karena menghasut perang ke Jerman, dan memaksanya untuk membayar beberapa miliar sebagai ganti rugi kepada negara-negara Sekutu.

Dihadapkan dengan tugas yang tampaknya mustahil untuk menyeimbangkan banyak prioritas yang bersaing, perjanjian itu berakhir sebagai dokumen panjang dan membingungkan yang tidak memuaskan siapa pun. “ISecara harfiah adalah upaya untuk membuat kembali Eropa,” kata Michael Neiberg, profesor sejarah di US Army War College dan penulis Perjanjian Versailles: Sejarah Ringkas (2017). “I’m bukan salah satu dari orang-orang yang percaya bahwa perjanjian itu membuat Perang Dunia Kedua tak terhindarkan, tapi saya pikir Anda bisa berargumen bahwa itu membuat Eropa menjadi tempat yang kurang stabil.”

Dalam visi Wilson tentang dunia pascaperang, semua negara (bukan hanya yang kalah) akan mengurangi angkatan bersenjata mereka, mempertahankan kebebasan laut dan bergabung dengan organisasi penjaga perdamaian internasional yang disebut Liga Bangsa-Bangsa. Tetapi rekan-rekan pemimpin Sekutu menolak sebagian besar rencananya sebagai naif dan terlalu idealis. Prancis, khususnya, ingin Jerman membayar harga yang mahal untuk perang, termasuk kehilangan wilayah, perlucutan senjata dan pembayaran reparasi, sementara Inggris melihat rencana Wilson sebagai ancaman bagi supremasi mereka di Eropa.

VIDEO: Keruntuhan Pasar Saham tahun 1929

Kamis Hitam membuat usia dua puluhan yang menderu berhenti, mengantarkan depresi ekonomi di seluruh dunia.

Selain mempengaruhi Jerman, Perjanjian Versailles mungkin telah menyebabkan Depresi Hebat.
Banyak orang, bahkan pada saat itu, setuju dengan ekonom Inggris John Maynard Keynes bahwa Jerman tidak mungkin membayar begitu banyak reparasi tanpa risiko yang parah terhadap seluruh ekonomi Eropa. Dalam memoarnya kemudian, Presiden AS Herbert Hoover melangkah lebih jauh dengan menyalahkan reparasi karena menyebabkan Depresi Hebat.

Tetapi meskipun sebagian besar orang Jerman sangat marah dengan Perjanjian Versailles, menyebutnya sebagai Diktat (dikte perdamaian) dan mengutuk perwakilan Jerman yang menandatanganinya sebagai “penjahat November” yang telah menikam mereka dari belakang, di belakang tampak jelas bahwa perjanjian itu ternyata jauh lebih lunak daripada yang mungkin dimaksudkan oleh para penulisnya. “Jerman akhirnya tidak membayar mendekati apa yang menurut perjanjian itu harus dibayar oleh Jerman,” Neiberg mengatakan, menambahkan bahwa hampir tidak ada orang yang mengharapkan Jerman dapat membayar seluruh jumlah tersebut.

Dan terlepas dari hilangnya wilayah Jerman, � banyak orang yang mengerti sejak tahun 1919 bahwa peta itu sebenarnya memberi Jerman beberapa keuntungan,” Neiberg menunjukkan. Ini menempatkan negara-negara kecil di perbatasan Jerman, di Eropa timur dan tengah. Ini menghilangkan Rusia sebagai musuh langsung Jerman, setidaknya pada 1920-an, dan menyingkirkan Rusia sebagai sekutu Prancis. Jadi, sementara perjanjian itu terlihat sangat keras bagi sebagian orang, itu sebenarnya membuka peluang bagi orang lain.”

Klausa kesalahan perang lebih bermasalah. 𠇊nda harus kembali ke tahun 1914, ketika sebagian besar orang Jerman percaya bahwa mereka telah memasuki perang karena Rusia telah memobilisasi pasukannya,” menjelaskan Neiberg. �gi sebagian besar orang Jerman pada tahun 1919, dan bukan hanya mereka yang berada di kanan, menyalahkan Jerman secara khusus atas perang itu tidak masuk akal. Terutama ketika mereka tidak menempatkan klausul kesalahan perang di Austria-Hongaria, yang dapat Anda katakan dengan masuk akal adalah orang-orang yang benar-benar memulai ini.”

Pertemuan informal pertama Liga Bangsa-Bangsa di Jenewa. (Kredit: Arsip Bettmann/Getty Images)

Perbatasan Eropa baru, Liga Bangsa-Bangsa dan ganti rugi Jerman.
Secara keseluruhan, perjanjian-perjanjian yang dibuat setelah Perang Dunia I menggambar ulang perbatasan Eropa, membagi bekas Kekaisaran Austro-Hongaria menjadi negara-negara seperti Yugoslavia, Polandia, dan Cekoslowakia. Seperti yang dikatakan Neiberg: “Padahal pada tahun 1914, Anda memiliki sejumlah kecil kekuatan besar, setelah 1919 Anda memiliki lebih banyak kekuatan kecil. Itu berarti keseimbangan kekuatannya kurang stabil.”

Perjanjian Versailles juga mencakup perjanjian untuk Liga Bangsa-Bangsa, organisasi internasional yang dibayangkan Woodrow Wilson akan menjaga perdamaian di antara bangsa-bangsa Eropa dan dunia. Tetapi Senat AS akhirnya menolak untuk meratifikasi Perjanjian Versailles karena penentangannya terhadap Liga, yang membuat organisasi itu sangat lemah tanpa partisipasi atau dukungan militer AS.

Sementara itu, kesengsaraan ekonomi Jerman, diperparah oleh beban reparasi dan inflasi Eropa secara umum, membuat Republik Weimar tidak stabil, pemerintah yang didirikan pada akhir perang. Karena kebencian yang berkepanjangan terhadap Perjanjian Versailles, Partai Sosialis Nasional (Nazi) dan partai-partai sayap kanan radikal lainnya dapat memperoleh dukungan pada tahun 1920-an dan awal �-an dengan berjanji untuk membatalkan ketentuan kerasnya dan menjadikan Jerman sebagai negara Eropa utama. kekuasaan sekali lagi.

Perjanjian Versailles membuat Perang Dunia II menjadi mungkin, bukan tak terhindarkan.
Pada tahun 1945, ketika para pemimpin Amerika Serikat, Inggris Raya dan Uni Soviet bertemu di Potsdam, mereka menyalahkan kegagalan Perjanjian Versailles untuk membuat konflik besar lainnya diperlukan, dan bersumpah untuk memperbaiki kesalahan para pendahulu penjaga perdamaian mereka. Tapi Neiberg, seperti banyak sejarawan, mengambil pandangan yang lebih bernuansa, menunjuk ke peristiwa selain perjanjian itu termasuk Amerika Serikat yang tidak bergabung dengan Liga Bangsa-Bangsa dan kebangkitan rezim Stalinis di Uni Soviet sebagai elemen yang diperlukan dalam memahami jalan. ke Perang Dunia Kedua.

�lam pandangan pribadi saya sebagai seorang sejarawan, Anda harus benar-benar berhati-hati menghubungkan langsung peristiwa yang terjadi 20 tahun terpisah,” katanya. 𠇊 perjanjian yang berbeda menghasilkan hasil yang berbeda, ya. Tapi Anda seharusnya tidak menggambar keniscayaan. Ini adalah bagian dari resep, tapi bukan satu-satunya bahan.”


Peta Kehilangan Wilayah Jerman - Sejarah

    (d-maps.com) (Perpustakaan Kongres) (Koleksi Peta Digital Perpustakaan Masyarakat Geografis Amerika) (Koleksi Peta David Rumsey)
  • Peta Sejarah Jerman
  • Peta Sejarah Jerman (WHKMLA)
  • Peta Sejarah Jerman, 1378-2003 (Institut Sejarah Eropa - Mainz (Universitas Alabama)
  • Historische Karten - Deutsches Reich 1789 (Thomas Hoeckmann) (oldmapsonline.org)
    (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (Putzgers Historischer Weltatlas, 1905) (WHKMLA) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (WHKMLA) (WHKMLA) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (WHKMLA) (WHKMLA) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (Atlas Sejarah Modern Cambridge, 1912) (WHKMLA) (Atlas Sejarah Modern Cambridge, 1912) (WHKMLA) (Atlas Sejarah Modern Cambridge, 1912) (Putzgers Historischer Weltatlas, 1905) (Droysens Allgemeatlas Historischer, 1886) (Vidal-Lablache, Atlas général d'histoire et de géographie, 1912) (Cambridge Modern Hist. Atlas, 1912) (Solusi Pemetaan) (Muir’s Historical Atlas, 1911) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Charles Colbeck, The Public Schools Historical Atlas, 1905) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atl sebagai, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (CMHA, 1912) (CMHA, 1912) (Solusi Pemetaan) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (IEG-Maps) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (IEG-Maps) (IEG-Maps) (Justus Perthes) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912 ) (IEG-Peta) (Heinrich Kiepert) (Emil Maurmann)
  • Alsace-Lorraine, 1910 (IEG-Peta) (IEG-Peta) (IEG-Peta) (IEG-Peta)

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Kerugian Teritorial Jerman dari 1919-1945 (Perjanjian Versailles - Konferensi Potsdam)

Menariknya, porsi hijau terus diperebutkan oleh pemerintah Jerman hingga reunifikasi pada 1990-an. Meskipun tidak ada kemungkinan serius untuk mendapatkan kembali wilayah itu, pemilih dari daerah-daerah yang melarikan diri ke barat sebagai pengungsi berjumlah jutaan dan mendukung reklamasi tanah itu adalah bagian kebijakan penting untuk suara mereka.

Tidak terlalu aneh, ada banyak negara yang tersisa dengan klaim teritorial. Terutama mereka yang sebelumnya mayoritas etnis, Palestina menjadi contoh utama

Saya bertanya-tanya mengapa peta Jerman sebelum perang dan kerugian teritorialnya sering diposting dan mengapa mereka terus-menerus menarik begitu banyak emosi dan komentar.

Saya kira karena itu menceritakan kisah peristiwa besar, tanpa setara di peradaban barat. Ini adalah kisah paling intens tentang keangkuhan, ambisi sejarah, dan kekejaman yang tak terkatakan yang mencemooh setiap deskripsi, yang akan Anda temukan - diringkas menjadi satu gambar.

Dan masih relevan untuk tatanan dunia saat ini, sementara Jerman telah sepenuhnya melepaskan pemahaman diri historis yang memungkinkan WW2 dan sulit untuk dijelaskan.


Industri baja Jerman bergantung pada batu bara dari Saar, dan bijih besi dari Alsace-Lorraine. Jerman kehilangan kedua area ini. Jerman juga kehilangan tambang batu bara di Silesia Atas, ke Polandia.

  1. Ini adalah masalah yang sulit untuk dipecahkan sehingga komisi reparasi dibentuk untuk memutuskan berapa banyak barang dan berapa banyak uang yang harus dibayar Jerman.
  2. Angka 6.600 juta akhirnya disepakati.
  3. Beberapa orang menganggap angka ini terlalu tinggi. J.M. Keynes (seorang ekonom Inggris) mengatakan bahwa Jerman hanya akan menjadi lebih miskin dan pahit. Dia benar.

Apa itu Prusia?: Memahami Sejarah Prusia

Tombol perwira Prusia (Wikimedia Commons)

Jadi nenek moyang Anda terdaftar dalam catatan sebagai “Prussian,” tetapi Anda tidak dapat menemukan Prusia di peta Eropa modern. Apa yang memberi? Sebelum diserap ke Jerman, “Prussia” (Jerman: Preussen) adalah kekuatan militer dan ekonomi utama di Eropa Tengah selama abad ke-18 dan ke-19. Mari kita melihat sejarah Prusia untuk melihat apa yang dapat kita pelajari tentang nenek moyang Prusia Anda.

Pertama-tama: Di mana Prusia? Pada puncaknya, Prusia mencakup setengah dari Polandia modern dan semuanya kecuali Jerman selatan. Meskipun merupakan salah satu dari banyak negara bagian Jerman, Prusia pada satu titik termasuk: Prusia Barat, Prusia Timur, Brandenburg (termasuk Berlin), Saxony, Pomerania, Rhineland, Westphalia, Silesia non-Austria, Lusatia, Schleswig-Holstein, Hanover, dan Hesse-Nassau.

Tapi Kadipaten Prusia sendiri (bagian paling timur dari Prusia) hanya terdiri dari tanah abad pertengahan yang ditaklukkan oleh Ksatria Teutonik. Wilayah ini menjadi bagian Brandenburg-Prussia pada abad ke-17, dan Kerajaan Prusia pada tahun 1701.

Peta Kekaisaran Jerman ini dari tahun 1871 hingga 1918, menunjukkan Prusia dengan warna biru. (Wikimedia Commons)

Prusia tumbuh dalam ukuran dan pengaruh sepanjang abad 18 dan 19 dengan berebut dengan kekuatan Eropa lainnya (khususnya Austria). Khususnya, Prusia menaklukkan Silesia yang dikuasai Austria dan memicu Perang Tujuh Tahun' yang menentukan dengan menyerang Bohemia. Prusia juga merupakan salah satu dari tiga negara yang membagi Polandia, dan (meskipun perang menghancurkan Eropa tengah), Prusia memperoleh wilayah yang cukup besar pada akhir Perang Napoleon’). Setelah Kongres Wina, Prusia menganeksasi sebagian besar Kekaisaran Romawi Suci (negara lain yang sekarang sudah tidak berfungsi).

Prusia juga diuntungkan oleh hasil lain dari Kongres Wina: Konfederasi Jerman. Afiliasi longgar negara-kota berbahasa Jerman tidak termasuk Prusia, tetapi Prusia mengerahkan pengaruhnya atas wilayah tersebut. Prusia membentuk serikat pekerja dengan negara-negara Konfederasi yang mengecualikan Austria, yang memungkinkan Prusia untuk mengalahkan saingannya untuk menjadi negara berbahasa Jerman yang dominan di wilayah tersebut.

Selain itu, sejarawan mengakui Prusia sebagai pendahulu negara Jerman bersatu. Otto Von Bismarck, perdana menteri Prusia, berperan penting dalam pembentukan Jerman. Melihat peluang untuk memperluas pengaruh Prusia (dan memimpikan kekaisaran Jerman yang bersatu), Bismarck merebut wilayah melalui perang dengan Denmark dan Austria. Dia juga mendeklarasikan aliansi baru antara Prusia dan negara-negara Jerman, yang disebut Konfederasi Jerman Utara (1867–1871).

Setelah mendorong Prancis ke dalam perang (dan dengan cepat menang), Bismark merundingkan Kekaisaran Jerman yang bersatu pada tahun 1871. Prusia tetap menjadi kekuatan dominan di Kekaisaran Jerman sampai pembubarannya pada tahun 1918 setelah Perang Dunia I.

Karena keunggulan Prusia dalam sejarah Jerman, Anda sering dapat menemukan sumber daya yang sama untuk leluhur Prusia seperti halnya untuk leluhur “Jerman” Anda. Anda dapat menemukan daftar sumber online khusus untuk keturunan Prusia di FamilySearch Wiki.


Garis Waktu Kekaisaran Romawi dan Tanah Rakyat Celtic

475BC Orang-orang Roma dan sekutu mereka (Liga Latin) menggulingkan penguasa Etruscan mereka. Setelah serangan Galia di Roma kota itu secara bertahap dibangun kembali menjadi salah satu yang terbesar di Italia. PADA 338 SM, Romawi menguasai Liga Latin dengan kekuasaan mutlak. Dari 300-280BC, Romawi menguasai musuh lokal mereka: Etruria, Samnit, dan Galia di Italia Utara (Lembah Po).


Kota-kota Yunani di selatan Italia yang peduli dengan kekuatan Roma mengirim juara mereka Pyrrhus melawannya. Dia memenangkan beberapa pertempuran tetapi dia akhirnya pergi untuk berperang di perang lain dan dengan kekalahan terakhirnya pada tahun 275 SM, Romawi menguasai seluruh Italia.


279BC Galia maju ke Makedonia, Yunani dan Thrace. Mereka segera dipaksa keluar dari masing-masing negara ini tetapi tetap di Thrace sampai akhir abad ini. Dari Thrace tiga suku Galia maju ke Anatolia dan membentuk kerajaan baru yang disebut Gallatia.


264-241BC Bangsa Romawi pergi berperang dengan Kartago dan membangun angkatan laut yang kuat. Mereka akhirnya mengalahkan Kartago pada 241 SM dan menguasai pulau Sisilia dan kemudian pulau Korsika dan Sardinia.

236BC Bangsa Celtic mulai kehilangan tanah mereka kepada orang lain. Bangsa Romawi menaklukkan Galia di lembah Po. Bangsa Romawi menghancurkan beberapa tentara Galia dan beberapa suku Galia yang penting bahkan meninggalkan Italia dan pergi untuk tinggal di utara Pegunungan Alpen.


Pada 219BC suku Celtic kehilangan tanah di Spanyol ke Kartago. Ketika Hannibal, jenderal Kartago, menyerang Seguntum, orang-orang Romawi datang ke pertahanan kota. Ini adalah awal dari Perang Punisia Kedua.


218BC Hannibal memenangkan banyak pertempuran melawan Romawi termasuk pertempuran Cannae di mana ia mengalahkan empat Legiun republik Romawi. Bangsa Romawi menyerang dan menaklukkan Spanyol dan kemudian Kartago sendiri. Orang-orang Kartago akhirnya dikalahkan dalam pertempuran Zama pada tahun 203 SM. Bangsa Romawi memperoleh semua wilayah Kartago di Spanyol.


200-191BC Galia Lembah Po yang memihak Hannibal dikalahkan dan daerah itu menjadi Provinsi Romawi 'Gaul Dekat'. Pada akhir abad ini orang Thracia mengusir Galia dari Thrace. Bangsa Celtic juga kehilangan banyak tanah di Gallatia ketika Seleucid dan Pergamenes menyerang mereka.


Kami tidak tahu apakah pergerakan besar orang Celtic atau perdagangan dekat membawa budaya Celtic ke Inggris. Beberapa suku Celtic dari Gaul menetap di Inggris sebelum Romawi menyerang Inggris, pada 55 SM.

200-146BC Bangsa Romawi berperang dengan negara-negara Yunani tetapi terutama Makedonia.

149BC Bangsa Romawi akhirnya mengambil alih Makedonia setelah memenangkan Perang Makedonia Ketiga mereka. Pada 146 SM, Romawi membawa seluruh Yunani di bawah kendali langsung mereka.


149BC Dalam perang ketiga antara kedua negara, Kartago diratakan dengan tanah dan penduduknya dijual sebagai budak. Setelah kemenangan terakhir ini, Romawi memperoleh wilayah Afrika Utara di Kartago.


133BC Raja Pergamus meninggal dan meninggalkan kerajaannya ke Roma. Bangsa Romawi sekarang menguasai hampir semua tanah di sekitar laut Mediterania.

42BC Mark Anthony dan legiun Romawinya melawan Parthia dan menderita banyak korban. Dia mundur dan menjadikan Romawi sebagai penguasa Armenia.


31BC Mark Anthony juga membantu Cleopatra menciptakan kembali Kekaisaran Ptolemeus di Mesir. Ini tidak populer dengan Romawi dan putra Julius Caesar, Octavius, mengalahkannya di pertempuran Actium.


Di bawah pemerintahan Octavius ​​Augustus, kerajaan Celtic dari Galatia dan (25BC) dan Paphlagania (6BC) diserap ke dalam Kekaisaran Romawi.
Di bawah Octavius, meskipun relatif damai, perbatasan Romawi didorong ke Sungai Danube. Ketika Romawi mencoba mendorong perbatasan ke Sungai Elbe, Jerman di utara negara itu di bawah kepemimpinan Arminius menyergap dan membantai tiga legiun Romawi.


Cappadocia ditambahkan ke Kekaisaran Romawi oleh Kaisar Tiberius dan Mauritania oleh Kaisar Caligula.


41AD Kaisar Claudius menginvasi Inggris dan memenangkan pertempuran yang menentukan di Medway. Kepala suku Celtic, Caractacus, melarikan diri dengan kelompok prajuritnya untuk mencari bantuan dari suku Silures yang suka berperang (sekarang di South Wales).


Silur berhasil menyergap kelompok tentara Romawi yang lebih kecil dan terkadang mereka berhasil melawan unit yang lebih besar. Dalam satu pertempuran mereka mengalahkan legiun Romawi dan hanya melarikan diri ketika legiun yang meringankan tiba.


78AD Julius Frontinus, Gubernur Romawi Inggris akhirnya mengalahkan Silurian setelah memindahkan Legiun Kedua Augustus ke Caerleon.


Kaisar Domitian membangun benteng di tanah Jerman antara sungai Rhine dan Danube dan membawa perbatasan Romawi ke Hutan Hitam dan Pegunungan Taunus.


Pada 79AD Agricola menjadi Gubernur Inggris dan dia memimpin Romawi ke pegunungan Inggris. Dia segera mengalahkan suku Ordovisium yang suka berperang di Wales Utara. Suku Brigantia di Inggris Utara & Skotlandia Selatan adalah korban berikutnya. Akhirnya pada tahun 84 M, bangsa Romawi melawan suku Caledonian di Skotlandia dan mengalahkan mereka dalam pertempuran Mons Graupius.


Namun, pertempuran di Danube berarti bahwa Romawi harus mengurangi jumlah legiun di Inggris menjadi tiga dan Romawi menarik perbatasan mereka di Inggris Utara.


Kaisar Trajan mengumpulkan sepuluh legiun Romawi untuk melawan orang-orang Dacia dan setelah banyak berjuang keras, orang-orang Romawi menang. Dacia adalah provinsi pertama Roma di luar Sungai Danube.


Armenia dijadikan provinsi Romawi pada 114AD.


Adiabene dan Mesopotamia ditaklukkan oleh Romawi pada tahun 116 M.

Ketika Trajan meninggal pada tahun 117 M, Kekaisaran Romawi telah mencapai ukuran terbesarnya.

Kaisar Hadrian tidak mencoba untuk menaklukkan tanah baru tetapi puas untuk mempertahankan perbatasan Kekaisaran. Dia menarik diri dari Mesopotamia dan Armenia.


Di Inggris pasukannya membangun tembok di seberang Inggris Utara untuk melindungi perbatasan Romawi dari suku-suku Caledonian yang keras kepala. Pada 145AD perbatasan di Inggris dipindahkan ke utara ke Tembok Antonine.


Pada 251AD Romawi menemukan diri mereka diserang dan dikalahkan oleh Goth yang menguasai Balkan dan kemudian Anatolia. Lima tahun kemudian kaum Frank dan Alemanni dari Jerman menyerbu Galia Romawi, dan menyerbu ke Spanyol dan Italia. Persia menaklukkan Armenia dan pada 260 M mereka menerobos ke Suriah dan menjarah Antiokhia.


Kaisar Aurelian (270-275AD) secara resmi meninggalkan Dacia ke Goth dan Gepid Jerman. Di Jerman segitiga Rhine-Danube juga secara resmi ditinggalkan oleh suku Alemanni Jerman.

Kekaisaran Romawi secara permanen dibagi menjadi Kekaisaran Barat dan Timur. Kekaisaran Romawi Timur kemudian dikenal sebagai Kekaisaran Bizantium.


Pada abad keempat Masehi prajurit penunggang kuda dari Timur yang disebut Hun memaksa beberapa suku Jerman untuk pindah ke Kekaisaran Romawi Barat. Roma sendiri dijarah oleh Visigoth pada tahun 410 M. Pada tahun yang sama Kaisar Romawi mengatakan kepada Inggris bahwa mereka harus mengatur pertahanan mereka sendiri tanpa bantuan dari pasukan Romawi. Di sebagian besar Inggris dan Galia, administrator Romawi diusir dan penduduk asli mengorganisir pertahanan mereka sendiri. Beberapa orang Romawi tetap tinggal untuk melawan penjajah.


Inggris sekarang menjadi sasaran empuk dan diserang oleh Picts dari Utara dan Celtic Irlandia di Barat. Di Inggris Timur, tentara bayaran Jerman dipekerjakan oleh pemimpin Romawi-Inggris, Vortigen, untuk membantu bertahan melawan kelompok penyerang. Sebagai imbalannya tentara bayaran ini diberi kesempatan untuk menetap di Inggris Timur. Namun, tentara bayaran asing ini mendorong anggota lain dari suku mereka untuk bergabung dalam penjarahan Inggris dan menetap di tanah Celtic. Para migran baru termasuk Saxon, Jute dan Angles. Mereka membentuk kerajaan mereka sendiri di tempat yang sekarang dikenal sebagai Inggris.


Pada 455 dan 493 M sebuah kerajaan Ostrogothic didirikan di Italia dan dominasi Romawi telah berakhir. Kekaisaran Bizantium bertahan selama seribu tahun lagi sampai Turki merebut Konstantinopel pada tahun 1453 M.

Peta Kekaisaran Romawi dan Tanah Keltik

Anda juga dapat menemukan semua teks ini di dalam peta -

800BC Bangsa Celtic menguasai sebagian besar Eropa tengah dan pada 700BC mereka juga menaklukkan tanah Spanyol Utara. Selama seratus tahun berikutnya mereka berkembang ke pusat Spanyol tetapi kehilangan tanah mereka di utara Spanyol. Bangsa Celtic di Eropa tengah dikenal sebagai Galia. Bangsa Celtic mungkin sudah mulai tiba di Inggris sekitar tahun 480 SM. Mereka melanjutkan pemukiman mereka di Inggris selama ini.


410-390BC Galia berkembang ke bawah melalui tanah, yang mengaliri sungai Danube, dan ke Italia Utara. Di sana mereka menaklukkan orang-orang Etruria dan mereka mengalahkan Romawi dan menjarah Roma.


Peta Kehilangan Wilayah Jerman - Sejarah

RINGKASAN KAMPANYE PERANG DUNIA 2

termasuk KAMPANYE NORWEGIA 1940

Setiap Ringkasan selesai dengan sendirinya. Oleh karena itu, informasi yang sama dapat ditemukan dalam sejumlah ringkasan terkait

(untuk informasi kapal lebih lanjut, buka Beranda Sejarah Angkatan Laut dan ketik nama di Pencarian Situs)

1939

SEPTEMBER 1939

Kapal selam Armada Rumah Inggris yang berpatroli di barat daya Norwegia menderita korban pertama mereka dalam keadaan tragis. "OXLEY" ditorpedo karena kesalahan oleh "Triton" dan jatuh dari Obrestad pada tanggal 10.

NOVEMBER 1939

Perang Rusia-Finlandia - Negosiasi tentang perubahan perbatasan dan kontrol pulau-pulau di Teluk Finlandia gagal dan Rusia menginvasi pada tanggal 30. Perang berlanjut hingga Maret 1940 dengan konsekuensi fatal bagi Norwegia.

Perang Pengiriman Pedagang - Konvoi HN/ON pertama berlayar antara Firth of Forth dan Norwegia pada bulan November yang dilindungi oleh Home Fleet. Konvoi dihentikan pada April 1940.

1940

JANUARI 1940

Eropa Barat - Rencana Jerman untuk serangan Barat (Operasi 'Gelb') ditunda. Perencanaan dilanjutkan untuk invasi ke Norwegia dengan nama sandi 'Weserubung'.

FEBRUARI 1940

Insiden “Altmark” - "Altmark" adalah kapal suplai “Graf Spee” dengan tahanan Merchant Navy di dalamnya. Dia berlindung di Jossingfiord, di dalam perairan teritorial Norwegia. Pada malam tanggal 16, kapal perusak “Cossack” (Kapten Vian) pergi bersama dengan rombongan dan setelah perjuangan singkat membebaskan para tahanan.

Perang Rusia-Finlandia - Inggris dan Prancis berencana mengirim bantuan ke Finlandia. Ini akan memungkinkan mereka untuk menduduki Narvik di Norwegia utara dan mengurangi pasokan bijih besi Swedia ke Jerman.

MARET 1940

Pertempuran Atlantik - Ada jeda dalam Pertempuran Atlantik ketika U-boat ditarik untuk kampanye Norwegia, dan sebelum perampok permukaan mulai beroperasi dan pesawat jarak jauh dan U-boat muncul dari pangkalan di Prancis dan Norwegia.

Perang Rusia-Finlandia - Kesimpulan - Sebuah perjanjian damai pada tanggal 13 mengakhiri perang, dengan Finlandia menyerahkan wilayah yang disengketakan kepada Uni Soviet.

Norway - Kemudian di bulan itu, dan meskipun mengabaikan rencana untuk membantu Finlandia, Inggris dan Prancis memutuskan untuk mengganggu lalu lintas bijih besi Swedia ke Jerman dengan menambang perairan Norwegia (Operasi 'Wilfred'). Rencana juga dibuat untuk mendaratkan pasukan di Norwegia, dari selatan ke utara, di Stavanger, Bergen, Trondheim dan Narvik untuk mencegah pembalasan Jerman (Operasi 'R4). Seluruh operasi dijadwalkan pada 8 April.

APRIL 1940

“U-50” yang sedang berpatroli di Shetlands untuk mendukung invasi Norwegia, ditenggelamkan oleh kapal perusak “Hero” pada tanggal 10.

Kepulauan Faeroe - Pada tanggal 13 April, setelah invasi Jerman ke Norwegia, sebuah garda depan Marinir Kerajaan mendarat di Kepulauan Faeroe, barat laut Kepulauan Shetland dengan persetujuan Gubernur Denmark.

Kampanye Norwegia

3 - Pengangkut pasukan Jerman pertama berlayar ke Norwegia.

tanggal 7 - Pasukan Jerman yang membawa kapal perang menuju Norwegia

tanggal 8 - Operasi 'Wilfred' - Kapal perusak Angkatan Laut Kerajaan meletakkan ladang ranjau simulasi dan nyata di tiga titik di lepas pantai Norwegia antara Stadtlandet dan Bodo. Battlecruiser “Terkenal” dan kapal perusak lainnya menyediakan perlindungan. Salah satu layar, “GLOWWORM” (Lt-Cdr Roope) dipasang untuk mencari seorang pria di luar kapal tepat saat kapal penjelajah 8in-gun “Admiral Hipper” menuju ke Trondheim. Mereka bertemu di barat laut pelabuhan dan kapal perusak itu segera tenggelam, tetapi tidak sebelum dia menabrak dan merusak “Hipper”. + Lt-Cdr Gerard Roope RN secara anumerta dianugerahi Victoria Cross.

7-8 - Menanggapi laporan pergerakan Jerman, unit Armada Dalam Negeri termasuk “Rodney”, “Valiant”, “Repulse”, empat kapal penjelajah dan 14 kapal perusak berlayar dari Scapa Flow dan Rosyth. Mendampingi mereka adalah kapal penjelajah Prancis dan dua kapal perusak. Dua lagi kapal penjelajah Inggris dan sembilan kapal perusak meninggalkan tugas lain dan menuju perairan Norwegia. Keesokan harinya, pada tanggal 8, mereka bergabung dengan empat kapal penjelajah pengangkut pasukan Operasi 'R4', tetapi setelah para prajurit diturunkan kembali di Inggris. More than 20 submarines, including three French and one Polish took up positions.

9th - Germany invaded Denmark and Norway (Operation 'Weserubung'): Copenhagen was soon occupied and DENMARK surrendered. In Norway, troops landed at Oslo, Kristiansand and Bergen in the south, Trondheim in the centre and Narvik in the north. The southern forces and those from Trondheim pushed inland and joined up by the end of the month. They then moved north to relieve Narvik, which was isolated by the Allies soon after the first German landings.

German Navy forces included a pocket battleship, six cruisers and 14 destroyers for the landings at the five Norwegian ports, with battlecruisers “Scharnhorst” and “Gneisenau” covering the two most northerly landings. Thirty U-boats patrolled off Norway and British bases, but throughout the campaign they suffered from major torpedo defects.

Early in the morning of the 9th, battlecruiser “Renown” was in action with the two German battlecruisers to the west of Vestfiord. “Gneisenau” was d amaged and “Renown” slightly. The Germans withdrew. As “Renown” was in action, German occupation forces heading for Oslo came under heavy fire from Norwegian coastal defences. Shore-sited guns and torpedoes in Oslo Fiord sank heavy cruiser “BLUCHER”. A Home Fleet cruiser force was detached to attack the German warships in Bergen, but ordered to withdraw. They come under continuous air attack and destroyer “GURKHA” was bo mbed and sunk southwest of Bergen. That evening, German cruiser “KARLSRUHE” left Kri stiansand and was torpedoed by submarine “Truant”. She was scuttled next day.

10th - First Battle of Narvik - The 2nd Destroyer Flotilla (Capt. Warburton-Lee) with “Hardy”, “Havock”, “Hostile”, “Hotspur” and “Hunter”, entered Ofotfiord to attack the German ships assigned to the occupation of Narvik. These included 10 large destroyers. Several transports were sunk together with destroyers “ANTON SCHMITT” (AS) and “WILHELM HEIDKAMP” (WM) in Narvik Bay . Other German destroyers were damaged, but as the British 2nd Flotilla retired, “HARDY” was beached, “HUNTER” sunk and “Hotspur” badly damaged by the remaining German ships . + Capt Bernard Warburton-Lee RN was posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross.

By the 10th, the British Home Fleet was reinforced by battleship “Warspite” and carrier “Furious”. On the same day submarine “THISTLE” on patrol off Utsira failed in an attack on “U-4”. Shortly after she was sunk by the same U-boat. Fleet Air Arm Skua dive-bomber’s of 800 and 803 Squadrons flying from the Orkney Islands sank German cruiser "KOENIGSBERG" at her moorings in Bergen. She was damaged earlier by shore batteries in the landings. This was the first major warship sunk by air attack.

tanggal 11 - Returning from the Oslo landings, German pocket battleship “Lutzow” was tor pedoed and badly damaged by submarine “Spearfish” in the Skagerrak. Cruiser “Penelope” on her way into Narvik was damaged running aground in Vestfiord.

13th - Second Battle of Narvik - Battleship “Warspite” and nine destroyers were sent into the Narvik fiords to finish off the remaining German ships. Submarine “U-64” was surprised and sunk by “Warspite's” Swordfish catapult aircraft as it scouted ahead. The eight surviving German destroyers – “BERND VON ARNIM” (BA), “DIETHER VON ROEDER” (DR), “ERICH GIESE” (EG), “ERICH KOELNNER” (EK), “GEORG THIELE” (GT), “HANS LUDEMANN” (HL), “HERMANN KUNNE” (HK) and “WOLFGANG ZENKER” (WZ) were a ll destroyed or scuttled. The British “Eskimo” and “Cossack” were da maged. By the 13th, the first British troop convoys had left the Scottish Clyde for Narvik, but some ships were diverted to Namsos. German forces were well-established in the south and centre of Norway and had control of the air.

tanggal 14 - Submarine “TARPON” on patrol off southern Norway was sunk by German minesweeper “M-6”. German gunnery training ship “BRUMMER” was torpedoed and sunk by submarine “Sterlet”.

14th-16th - The first Allied landings took place between the 14th and 16th. In the north, British troops occupied Harstad in preparation for an attack on Narvik. They were reinforced by French and Polish units through into May. Royal Marines led British and French troops into Namsos ready for an attack south towards Trondheim. The British went ashore in the Andalsnes area to try to hold central Norway with the Norwegian Army. Neither of these operations proved possible and on the 27th April the decision was taken to pull out of central Norway.

tanggal 15 - As the Harstad-bound troopships approached their destination, escorting destroyers “Brazen” and “Fearless” located and sank “U-49”. Southwest of Stavanger, “U-1” went to th e bottom after striking a mine.

tanggal 17 - Heavy cruiser “Suffolk” bombarded installations at Stavanger, but on her return was badly damaged by Ju-88 bombers and barely made Scapa Flow with her stern awash.

tanggal 18 - Four days after sinking the “Brummer”, “STERLET” was pres umed sunk in the Skagerrak by German anti-submarine trawlers

24th - After four days continuous AA duty off Andalsnes, cruiser “Curacoa” was b adly damaged by bombs. Carrier “Glorious” flew off obsolescent Gladiator biplanes for shore operations.

27th - Allied plans to attack towards Trondheim and hold central Norway proved impossible. The decision was taken to pull out of central Norway and the evacuation of Andalsnes and Namsos got under way.

30th - Sloop “BITTERN” was s unk by Ju-87 dive-bombers off Namsos.

MAY 1940

Norwegian Campaign - continued

2nd/3rd - In three days and nights the last 10,000 British and French troops were evacuated from Namsos and around Andalsnes following the failure to attack towards Trondheim and hold central Norway. Other troops were later landed further north, including at Bodo in an attempt to block the German advance from Trondheim towards Narvik. The Allies continued to build up forces for the attack on Narvik. + Lt-Cdr Richard Stannard RNR, commanding officer of HM trawler Arab of the 15th Anti-Submarine Striking Force, was awarded the Victoria Cross for gallantry under air attack during operations off Namsos.

3rd - Retiring northwest from Namsos, destroyers “AFRIDI” and the French “BISON” were s unk by Ju-87 Stuka dive-bombers.

4th - As preparations continued in northern Norway for the attack on Narvik, Polish destroyer “GROM” was b ombed and sunk.

5th - Submarine “SEAL” successfully laid mines in the southern Kattegat on the 4th before being damaged by a German mine. Trying to make for neutral Sweden on the surface, she was attacked and captured off The Skaw by German air and sea patrols.

tanggal 17 - Cruiser “EFFINGHAM” ran aground on an uncharted rock in Vestfiord carrying troops to Bodo to help block the German advance on Narvik. She was later torpedoed and abandoned.

23rd - By now carriers “Furious” and “Glorious” had flown ashore the first modern RAF fighters.

24th - The Allies decided to pull out of Norway altogether, but not before Narvik was captured and the port installations destroyed.

tanggal 26 - During the attack on Narvik, AA cruiser “CURLEW” was bo mbed and sunk in nearby Lavang Fjord.

28th - Two days after the loss of sister ship “Curlew”, “Cairo” was badl y damaged off the town of Narvik just as French and Polish troops completed its capture. The Norwegian Campaign shortly drew to a close.

Britania - Following a 10th May House of Commons debate on the Norwegian campaign, Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain resigned and Winston Churchill assumed leadership. Albert V. Alexander succeeded him as First Lord of the Admiralty. The planned attack on Narvik would still go ahead, but that same day the German Blitzkrieg on Holland, Belgium and France was launched.

Battle of the Atlantic - The Allied loss of Norway brought German warships and U-boats many hundreds of miles closer to the Atlantic convoy routes and in time within close range of the Russian convoys that followed the June 1941 German invasion. Britain's blockade line from the Orkneys to southern Norway was simply outflanked. Within a matter of days the first U-boats were sailing from the Norwegian port of Bergen.

4th-8th - Norwegian Campaign - It's Conclusion . Following the capture of Narvik, Allied forces totalling 25,000 men were evacuated in four days from northern Norway, by which time King Haakon VII and his Government were on their way to Britain aboard heavy cruiser “Devonshire”.

8th - At the end of the evacuation, fleet carrier “GLORIOUS” and escorting destroyers “ACASTA” and “ARDENT” sailed fo r Britain independently of the other withdrawing forces. West of Lofoten Islands they met the 11in gun battlecruisers “Scharnhorst” and “Gneisenau” sailing to attack suspected Allied shipping off Harstad. The British ships were soon overwhelmed and sunk, but not before “Acasta” hit “Scharnhorst” with a torpedo. Few of the Royal Navy crews survived.

Allied submarines working with the Royal Navy continued to play a part in operations off Norway and had their share of losses. On the last day of the campaign the Polish “ORZEL” on passage to her patrol area and made famous after escaping from invaded Poland, was presumed mined. Another Allied boat was lost twelve days later.

9th-20th . and Immediate Aftermath - The surviving Norwegian troops surrendered to the German Army and the Norwegian Campaign was over. NORWAY and its people were not liberated until after the German surrender in May 1945. During that time, many Norwegians escape to fight with the Allies, resistance movements grew in effectiveness, and large German forces were held down there at Hitler’s command in case the Allies invaded. Naval losses on both sides were heavy, and in the case of the Germans included damage to battlecruiser "Scharnhorst" (followed shortly by "Gneisenau") and pocket battleship "Lutzow".


Timeline of the German Military and the Nazi Regime

This timeline chronicles the relationship between the professional military elite and the Nazi state. It pays specific attention to the military leaders’ acceptance of Nazi ideology and their role in perpetrating crimes against Jews, prisoners of war, and unarmed civilians in the name of that ideology.

In the aftermath of the Holocaust, Germany’s military generals claimed they had fought honorably in World War II. They insisted it was the SS—the Nazi elite guard—and the SS leader, Heinrich Himmler, who were responsible for all crimes.

This myth of the German military’s “clean hands” was largely accepted in the United States, where American military leaders, embroiled in the Cold War, looked to their German counterparts for information that would help them against the Soviet Union. And because the few available Soviet accounts of the war were deemed untrustworthy—and most of the crimes committed by the German military had taken place in Soviet territory—the myth remained unchallenged for decades.

This led to two long-lasting distortions of the historical record of World War II. First, German generals came to be seen as models of military skill rather than as war criminals complicit in the crimes of the Nazi regime. Second, the German military’s role in the Holocaust was largely forgotten.

This timeline addresses these distortions by chronicling the relationship between the professional military elite and the Nazi state. It pays specific attention to the military leaders’ acceptance of Nazi ideology and their role in perpetrating crimes against Jews, prisoners of war, and unarmed civilians in the name of that ideology.

World War I (1914-18)

World War I was one of the most destructive wars in modern history. Initial enthusiasm on all sides for a quick and decisive victory faded as the war devolved into a stalemate of costly battles and trench warfare, particularly on the western front. Over 9 million soldiers died, a figure which far exceeded the military deaths in all the wars of the previous hundred years combined. The enormous losses on all sides resulted in part from the introduction of new weapons, like the machine gun and gas warfare, as well as from the failure of military leaders to adjus t their tactics to the increasingly mechanized nature of warfare.

The Great War was a defining experience for the German military. Perceived failures on the battlefield and the homefront shaped its beliefs about war and informed its interpretation of the relationship between civilians and soldiers.

October 1916: The German Military’s Jewish Census

During World War I, approximately 100,000 of the roughly 600,000 soldiers who served in the German military were Jewish. Many were German patriots who saw the war as an opportunity to prove their loyalty to their country. However, antisemitic newspapers and politicians claimed that Jews were cowards who were shirking their duty by staying away from combat. To prove this claim, the Minister of War began an investigation into the number of Jews serving in the front lines. For reasons that are not clear, the results were never published, which allowed antisemites to continue to question Jewish patriotism after the war.

November 11, 1918: The Armistice and the Stab-in-the-Back Legend

After more than four years of fighting, an armistice, or ceasefire, between defeated Germany and the Entente powers went into effect on November 11, 1918. For the German people, the defeat was an enormous shock they had been told that victory was inevitable.

One way some Germans made sense of their sudden defeat was through the “stab-in-the-back” legend. The legend claimed that internal “enemies”—primarily Jews and communists—had sabotaged the German war effort. In truth, German military leaders convinced the German emperor to seek peace because they knew that Germany could not win the war, and they feared the country’s imminent collapse. Many of these same military leaders then spread the stab-in-the-back legend to deflect blame for the defeat away from the military.

June 28, 1919: The Treaty of Versailles

The Treaty of Versailles, which ended World War I, was signed on June 28, 1919. Germany’s newly formed democratic government saw the treaty as a “dictated peace” with harsh terms.

In addition to other provisions, the treaty artificially limited German military power. It restricted the German army to a 100,000-man volunteer force, with a maximum of 4,000 officers, who were each required to serve for 25 years. This was intended to prevent the German army from using rapid turnover to train more officers. The treaty forbade production of tanks, poisonous gas, armored cars, airplanes, and submarines and the import of weapons. It dissolved the elite planning section of the German army, known as the General Staff, and closed the military academies and other training institutions. The treaty demanded the demilitarization of the Rhineland, forbidding German military forces from being stationed along the border with France. These changes greatly limited the career prospects of German military officers. 1

January 1, 1921: The German Military is Reestablished

The new German republic, known as the Weimar Republic, faced many difficult tasks. One of the most challenging was the reorganization of the military, called the Reichswehr. The government reinstituted the Reichswehr on January 1, 1921 under the leadership of General Hans von Seeckt. The Reichswehr’s small and homogenous officer corps was characterized by antidemocratic attitudes, opposition to the Weimar Republic, and attempts to undermine and circumvent the Treaty of Versailles.

Throughout the 1920s, the military repeatedly violated the treaty. For example, the disbanded General Staff simply transferred its planning to the newly established “Troop Office.” The military also secretly imported weapons that had been banned by the Treaty of Versailles. It even signed an agreement with the Soviet Union, which allowed it to conduct prohibited tank exercises in Soviet territory. The Reichswehr’s mid-level officers later became the leaders of the military under Hitler.

July 27, 1929: The Geneva Convention

On July 27, 1929, Germany and other leading countries signed the Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War in Geneva. This international agreement built on the earlier Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 to increase protections for prisoners of war. The convention was one of several important international agreements regulating war in the 1920s. The Geneva Protocol (1925) updated restrictions relating to the use of poison gas. In 1928, the Kellogg-Briand Pact renounced war as a national policy.

These postwar agreements were an attempt to update international law in a way that would prevent another conflict as destructive as World War I. However, the dominant attitude within the German army was that military necessity always outweighed international la w. L ike many other nations, Germany bent or broke the rules when it found it advantageous to do so .

February 3, 1933: Hitler Meets with Top Military Leaders

Adolf Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany on January 30, 1933. Just four days later, he met privately with top military leaders to attempt to win their support. This was especially important because the military had historically played a very important role in German society and therefore had the ability to overthrow the new regime.

The military leadership did not fully trust or support Hitler because of his populism and radicalism. However, the Nazi Party and the German military had similar foreign policy goals. Both wanted to renounce t he Treaty of Versailles, to expand the German armed forces, and to destroy the communist threat. In this first meeting, Hitler tried to reassure the German officer corps. He talked openly about his plans to establish a dictatorship, reclaim lost land, and wage war. Almost two months later, Hitler showed his respect for the German military tradition by publicly bowing to President Hindenburg, a celebrated World War I general.

February 28, 1934: The “Aryan Paragraph”

Passed on April 7, 1933, the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service included the Aryan Paragraph. The paragraph called for all Germans of non-Aryan descent (i.e. Jews) to be forcibly retired from the civil service.

The Aryan Paragraph did not initially apply to the armed forces. On February 28, 1934, however, Defense Minister Werner von Blomberg voluntarily put it in effect for the military as well. Because the Reichswehr discriminated against Jews and blocked their promotion, the policy affected fewer than 100 soldiers. 2 In a memorandum to high level military leaders, Colonel Erich von Manstein condemned the firings on the basis of the traditional values of the German military and its professional code, to little effect. Blomberg’s decision to apply the Aryan Paragraph was one of many ways that senior military officials worked with the Nazi regime. They also added Nazi symbols to military uniforms and insignia and introduced political education based on Nazi ideals into military training.

June 30- July 2, 1934: “The Night of the Long Knives”

In 1933-1934, Hitler put an end to efforts by SA leader Ernst Röhm to replace the professional army with a people’s militia centered on the SA. Military leaders demanded that Röhm be stopped. Hitler decided that a professionally trained and organized military better suited his expansionist aims. He intervened on the military’s behalf in exchange for their future support.

Between June 30 and July 2, 1934, the Nazi Party leadership murdered the leadership of the SA, including Röhm, and other opponents. The murders confirmed an agreement between the Nazi regime and the military that would remain intact, with rare exceptions, until the end of World War II. As part of this agreement, military leaders supported Hitler when he proclaimed himself Führer (leader) of the German Reich in August 1934. The military leaders immediately wrote a new oath that swore their service to Hitler personally as the personification of the German Nation. 3

March 1935-March 1936: Creating the Wehrmacht

In early 1935, Germany took its first public steps to rearm, in violation of the Treaty of Versailles. On March 16, 1935, a new law reintroduced the draft and officially expanded the German army to 550,000 men.

In May, a secret Reich Defense Law transformed the Reichswehr ke dalam Wehrmacht and made Hitler its Commander-in-Chief, with a “Minister of War and Commander of the Wehrmacht” under him. The name change was largely cosmetic, but the intent was to create a force capable of a war of aggression, rather than the defensive force created by the treaty. In addition, the conscription law excluded Jews, much to the disappointment of those Jewish men who wanted to prove their continuing loyalty to Germany. Military leaders worked with the Nazi regime to expand arms production. In March 1936, the new Wehrmacht remilitarized the Rhineland.

November 5, 1937: Hitler Meets with Top Military Leaders Again

On November 5, 1937, Hitler held a small meeting with the foreign minister, the war minister, and the heads of the army, navy and air force. Hitler discussed his vision for Germany’s foreign policy with them, including plans to absorb Austria and Czechoslovakia soon, by force if necessary, with further expansion to follow. 4 The Commander-in-Chief of the Army Werner Freiherr von Fritsch, Minister of War von Blomberg, and Foreign Minister Konstantin von Neurath objected, not on moral grounds, but because they believed Germany was not ready militarily, especially if Britain and France joined the war. In the days and weeks that followed, several other military leaders who learned of the meeting also expressed their disapproval.

January-February 1938: The Blomberg-Fritsch Affair

In early 1938, two scandals involving top Wehrmacht leaders allowed the Nazis to remove commanders who did not fully support Hitler’s plans (as laid out in the November meeting). First, Minister of War Blomberg had recently married, and information came to light that his wife had “a past,” involving, at the least, pornographic pictures. This was completely unacceptable for any army officer. Hitler (with the full support of the other senior generals) demanded Blomberg’s resignation. Around the same time, Commander-in-Chief of the Army von Fritsch resigned after Himmler and Reichsmarshal Hermann Göring trumped up false charges of homosexuality against him.

The two resignations became known as the Blomberg-Fritsch Affair. They gave Hitler the opportunity to restructure the Wehrmacht under his control. The position of Minister of War was taken over by Hitler himself, and General Wilhelm Keitel was appointed as the military head of the armed forces. Fritsch was replaced with the much more pliable Colonel-General Walther von Brauchitsch. These changes were just the most public. Hitler also announced a series of forced resignations and transfers at a cabinet meeting in early February.

March 1938-March 1939: Foreign Policy and Expansion

From March 1938 to March 1939, Germany made a series of territorial moves that risked a European war. First, in March 1938, Germany annexed Austria. Hitler then threatened war unless the Sudetenland, a border area of Czechoslovakia containing an ethnic German majority, was surrendered to Germany. The leaders of Britain, France, Italy, and Germany held a conference in Munich, Germany, on September 29–30, 1938. They agreed to the German annexation of the Sudetenland in exchange for a pledge of peace from Hitler. On March 15, 1939, Hitler violated the Munich Agreement and moved against the rest of the Czechoslovak state. These events sparked tension within the military’s High Command. General Ludwig Beck, Chief of the General Staff, had long protested the prospect of another unwinnable war. However, his colleagues refused to back him up—they were willing to hand over the reins of strategy to the Führer. Beck resigned, to no effect.

September 1, 1939: Germany Invades Poland

On September 1, 1939, Germany invaded and quickly defeated Poland, beginning World War II. The German occupation of Poland was exceptionally brutal. In a campaign of terror, German police and SS units shot thousands of Polish civilians and required all Polish males to perform forced labor. The Nazis sought to destroy Polish culture by eliminating the Polish political, religious, and intellectual leadership. These crimes were perpetrated mainly by the SS, although Wehrmacht leaders were in full support of the policies. Many German soldiers also participated in the violence and looting. Some in the Wehrmacht were unhappy with the involvement of their soldiers, shocked by the violence, and concerned about the lack of order among the soldiers. Generals Blaskowitz and Ulex even complained to their superiors about the violence. However, they were quickly silenced. 5

April 7-June 22, 1940: The Invasion of Western Europe

In the spring of 1940, Germany invaded, defeated, and occupied Denmark, Norway, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and France. This string of victories—especially the astoundingly quick defeat of France—greatly increased Hitler’s popularity at home and within the military. The few military officers who had objected to his plans now found their credibility destroyed and the potential to organize opposition to the regime reduced. After the victory in Western Europe, Hitler and the Wehrmacht turned their attention to planning an invasion of the Soviet Union.

March 30, 1941: Planning the Invasion of the Soviet Union

On March 30, 1941, Hitler spoke secretly to 250 of his principal commanders and staff officers on the nature of the upcoming war against the Soviet Union. His speech emphasized that the war in the East would be conducted with extreme brutality with the aim of destroying the communist threat. Hitler’s audience knew he was calling for clear violations of the laws of war, but there were no serious objections. Instead, following Hitler’s ideological position, the military issued a series of orders that made it clear they intended to wage a war of annihilation against the communist state. The most notorious of these orders include the Commissar Order and the Barbarossa Jurisdiction Decree. Together these and other orders established a clear working relationship between the Wehrmacht and the SS. In addition, the orders clarified that soldiers would not be punished for committing acts contrary to the internationally agreed upon rules of war.

April 6, 1941: The Invasion of Yugoslavia and Greece

The Axis powers invaded Yugoslavia on April 6, 1941, dismembering the country and exploiting ethnic tensions. In one region, Serbia, Germany established a military occupation administration that exercised extreme brutality against the local population. During the summer of that year, German military and police authorities interned most Jews and Roma (Gypsies) in detention camps. By the fall, a Serbian uprising had inflicted serious casualties upon German military and police personnel. In response, Hitler ordered German authorities to shoot 100 hostages for every German death. German military and police units used this order as a pretext to shoot virtually all male Serbian Jews (approximately 8,000 men), approximately 2,000 actual and perceived communists, Serb nationalists and democratic politicians of the interwar era, and approximately 1,000 Romani men.

June 22, 1941: The Invasion of the Soviet Union

German forces invaded the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941. Three army groups, consisting of more than three million German soldiers, attacked the Soviet Union across a broad front, from the Baltic Sea in the north to the Black Sea in the south.

In accordance with their orders, German forces treated the population of the Soviet Union with extreme brutality. They burned entire villages and shot the rural population of whole districts in retaliation for partisan attacks. They sent millions of Soviet civilians to perform forced labor in Germany and the occupied territories. German planners called for the ruthless exploitation of Soviet resources, especially of agricultural produce. This was one of Germany’s major war aims in the east.

June 1941-January 1942: The Systematic Killing of the Soviet POWs

From the beginning of the Eastern campaign, Nazi ideology drove German policy towards Soviet prisoners of war (POWs). German authorities viewed Soviet POWs as inferiors and as part of the "Bolshevik menace.” They argued that because the Soviet Union was not a signatory to the 1929 Geneva Convention, its regulations requiring that POWs be given food, shelter, and medical care, and forbidding war work or corporal punishment, did not apply. This policy proved catastrophic for the millions of Soviet soldiers taken prisoner during the war.

By war’s end, over 3 million Soviet prisoners (about 58 percent) died in German captivity (versus about 3 percent of British or American prisoners). This death toll was neither an accident nor an automatic result of the war, but rather deliberate policy. The army and the SS cooperated in the shooting of hundreds of thousands of Soviet POWs, because they were Jews, or communists, or looked “asiatic.” The rest were subjected to long marches, systematic starvation, no medical care, little or no shelter, and forced labor . Time and again German forces were called upon to take "energetic and ruthless action" and "use their arms" unhesitatingly "to wipe out any trace of resistance" from Soviet POWs.

Summer-Fall 1941: Wehrmacht Participation in the Holocaust

Most German generals did not see themselves as Nazis. However, they shared many of the Nazis’ goals. In their opinion, there were good military reasons to support Nazi policies. In the eyes of the generals, communism fed resistance. They also believed the Jews were the driving force behind communism.

When the SS offered to secure the rear areas and eliminate the Jewish threat, the army cooperated by providing logistical support to the units and coordinating their movements. Army units helped round up Jews for the shooting squads, cordoned off the killing sites, and sometimes took part in shootings themselves. They established ghettos for those whom the shooters left behind and relied on Jewish forced labor. When some troops showed signs of unease, the generals issued orders, justifying the killings and other harsh measures.

February 2, 1943 German 6th Army Surrenders at Stalingrad

The Battle of Stalingrad, which lasted from October 1942 to February 1943, was a major turning point in the war. After months of fierce fighting and heavy casualties, and contrary to Hitler’s direct order, the surviving German forces (about 91,000 men) surrendered on February 2, 1943. Two weeks later, Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels gave a speech in Berlin calling for radicalization of mobilization measures and total war. The speech acknowledged the difficulties the country was facing and marked the beginning of increased desperation on the part of the Nazi leadership.

Their defeat at Stalingrad forced German troops on the defensive and was the beginning of their long retreat back to Germany. This retreat was marked by widespread destruction as the military implemented a scorched earth policy on Hitler’s orders. There was also an increased emphasis on maintaining military discipline, including ruthless arrests of soldiers who expressed doubts about Germany’s final victory.

July 20, 1944: Operasi Valkyrie

Although generally unconcerned about Nazi crimes—several of the conspirators had even taken part in the killing of Jews—a small group of senior military officers decided that Hitler had to die. They blamed Hitler for losing the war and felt that his continued leadership posed a serious threat to Germany’s future. They attempted to assassinate Hitler on July 20, 1944, exploding a small but powerful bomb during a military briefing in his East Prussian headquarters at Rastenburg.

Hitler survived and the plot fell apart. He quickly took his revenge for this attempt on his life. Several generals were forced to commit suicide or face humiliating prosecution. Others were tried before the infamous People’s Court in Berlin and executed. While Hitler remained suspicious of the remaining members of the German officer corps, most continued to fight for him and for Germany until the country’s surrender in 1945.

1945-1948 Major War Crimes Trials

After the German surrender in May 1945, some military leaders were tried for war crimes and crimes against humanity. The highest ranking generals were included in the trial of 22 major war criminals before the International Military Tribunal (IMT) in Nuremberg, Germany beginning in October 1945. Wilhelm Keitel and Alfred Jodl, both of the German armed forces high command, were found guilty and executed. Both sought to blame Hitler. However, the IMT explicitly rejected the use of the superior orders as a defense.

Three subsequent IMT trials before an American military tribunal at Nuremberg also focused on the crimes of the German military. Many of those convicted were released early, under the pressure of the Cold War and the establishment of the Bundeswehr. Unfortunately, most perpetrators of crimes against humanity have never been tried or punished.


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