Budaya La Tne

Budaya La Tne

Budaya La Tène (c. Ini menggantikan budaya Hallstatt sebelumnya (c. 450 SM) sebagai budaya dominan di Eropa tengah, terutama dalam hal seni. Artefak budaya La Tène telah ditemukan di busur yang luas meliputi barat dan tengah Eropa, terbentang dari Irlandia hingga Rumania.

Budaya La Tène sering salah disamakan dengan Celtic Abad Pertengahan, meskipun kehadirannya didokumentasikan di daerah baik di dalam maupun di luar wilayah yang ditempati oleh penutur bahasa Celtic. Budaya La Tne mengalami kemunduran setelah penaklukan Galia oleh Julius Caesar (c. 100-44 SM) pada pertengahan abad ke-1 SM, bahkan jika unsur-unsur terus terlihat dalam budaya material masyarakat Celtic di Inggris dan Irlandia.

Budaya Hallstatt

Budaya Hallstatt, yang mendapatkan namanya dari situs di tepi barat Danau Hallstatt di Austria Atas, dominan di Eropa tengah dari c. 1200 sampai c. 450 SM (Zaman Perunggu Akhir hingga Zaman Besi Awal). Kadang-kadang disebut budaya proto-Celtic, masyarakat ini berkembang berkat eksploitasi dan perdagangan sumber daya lokal seperti garam dan besi. Kemakmuran mereka dibuktikan di kuburan gundukan besar yang berisi berbagai macam barang, yang meliputi barang-barang mewah yang diimpor dari budaya Mediterania ke selatan, terutama koloni Yunani di Prancis selatan dan Etruria di Italia utara-tengah. Dari sekitar 600 SM, orang-orang Hallstatt tampaknya menjadi lebih sibuk dengan peperangan karena situs-situs menjadi dibentengi. Ada juga pemukiman yang lebih sedikit tetapi lebih kuat selama dua abad berikutnya, menunjukkan peningkatan persaingan untuk sumber daya dan, kemungkinan juga, untuk peluang perdagangan. Ada juga peningkatan aktivitas perdagangan dari sisi negara-negara Mediterania yang ingin mencari pasar baru untuk barang-barang produksi massal mereka seperti anggur. Produksi garam di tambang Hallstatt berakhir pada c. 400 SM dan kita mungkin mengira bahwa kekayaan yang berkurang ini mengakibatkan negara-negara Mediterania mencari mitra dagang di tempat lain.

Situs La Tne awalnya menempati wilayah di sekitar titik sungai utama seperti Loire, Marne, Moselle, & Elbe.

Sekarang budaya La Tène, dinamai menurut situs nama itu di Swiss timur, muncul ke permukaan, mungkin sezaman dengan pemukiman Hallstatt selama satu generasi (c. 460 - c. 440 SM) dan kemudian sepenuhnya menggantikannya sebagai banyak dari yang terakhir ditinggalkan. Dalam beberapa kasus yang jarang terjadi, pemukiman Hallstatt terus diduduki pada periode La Tne, contohnya adalah Hohenasperg di Jerman selatan. Situs La Tne awalnya menempati wilayah di tempat yang sekarang disebut Prancis, Jerman selatan, Swiss, dan Bohemia, sebagian besar di sekitar titik sungai utama seperti Loire, Marne, Moselle, dan Elbe.

La Tène: Definisi & Masalah Penggunaan

Nama 'La Tène' dulu, dan kadang-kadang masih, diterapkan oleh beberapa arkeolog dan sejarawan untuk apa yang saat ini lebih sering kita sebut 'kelt', terutama yang mengacu pada budaya material dan, khususnya, seni. Kedua istilah tersebut bermasalah karena mencakup banyak orang melintasi ruang dan waktu di Eropa. Dapat dikatakan bahwa ada perubahan budaya dan agama di masyarakat Eropa tengah selama Zaman Besi sehingga istilah budaya Hallstatt, budaya La Tène, dan budaya Celtic tetap berguna untuk membedakan fase perkembangan budaya yang kurang lebih berbeda di wilayah ini dari abad ke-13 SM hingga perluasan Kekaisaran Romawi dari abad ke-1 SM dan seterusnya hingga periode abad pertengahan. Namun, istilah-istilah ini menyamarkan hubungan kompleks antara suku-suku Eropa Barat dan Tengah yang berbeda, tumpang tindih beberapa fitur budaya dalam ruang dan waktu dan isolasi dan keunikan fitur lainnya. Zaman Besi Eropa tentu saja merupakan periode yang dinamis dari interaksi budaya, hubungan perdagangan, peperangan dan migrasi, dan dinamisme periode tersebut tidak cocok untuk istilah umum seperti 'La Tne' atau 'the Celt'. Oleh karena itu, istilah-istilah tersebut, meskipun terkadang berguna, harus digunakan dengan hati-hati.

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"Persamaan umum dari 'Budaya La Tène' dengan Celtic adalah persamaan yang tidak lagi dapat diterima." - J. Collis

Masalah lebih lanjut dengan istilah 'La Tène' adalah bahwa istilah itu telah digunakan secara luas sebagai sinonim untuk budaya Celtic meskipun didokumentasikan hanya ada di beberapa daerah yang ditempati oleh orang-orang berbahasa Celtic dan di daerah lain yang sama sekali tidak berhubungan dengannya. Celtic seperti bagian non-Celtic dari Iberia dan Denmark yang berbahasa Jerman. Selanjutnya, telah terbukti bahwa ada penutur bahasa Celtic sebelum kedatangan budaya La Tne. Seperti yang dicatat oleh sejarawan J. Collis: "Persamaan umum 'Budaya La Tne' dengan Celtic adalah persamaan yang tidak lagi dapat diterima baik secara metodologis maupun faktual." (dalam Bagnall, 3851). Selain itu, kata 'budaya' sangat menyesatkan karena "lebih baik membayangkan periode ini sebagai salah satu masyarakat kecil yang saling berinteraksi yang memiliki banyak ciri umum" (ibid).

Budaya Materi

Orang-orang dari budaya La Tène mempersembahkan persembahan barang-barang berharga kepada dewa-dewa mereka, dan ini sering dilakukan, seperti dalam budaya Celtic kemudian seperti di Inggris, dengan melemparkannya ke dalam air, dalam hal ini, Danau Neuchâtel. Ada bukti jembatan kayu yang pernah melintasi bagian danau yang sempit. Jembatan ini adalah platform dari mana persembahan disimpan ke dalam danau atau barang-barang ini melekat pada jembatan yang kemudian runtuh di perairan di bawah ketika budaya menurun. Artefak pertama ditemukan di danau pada tahun 1850-an M ketika airnya diturunkan secara artifisial. Temuan termasuk senjata dan baju besi seperti pedang besi, sarung pedang, tombak, dan perisai, serta barang-barang kecil seperti bros, patung hewan (terutama anjing, babi, dan sapi), dan bahkan tulang manusia.

Salah satu fitur yang menyatukan situs La Tne adalah gaya seni yang khas, yang menunjukkan pengaruh dari seni Yunani dan Etruria. Gaya itu lazim di seluruh benua Eropa dari Irlandia hingga Rumania.

Fitur seni La Tène meliputi:

  • topeng bergaya dan sosok manusia
  • bentuk geometris melengkung (bentuk S, spiral, dan bentuk simetris)
  • desain vegetal (terutama palmettes dan bunga teratai)
  • cinta makhluk fantastis seperti kuda bersayap dan griffin.

Penggalian pemakaman elit La Tne telah mengungkapkan banyak artefak seperti obor emas, senjata, barang impor dari Mediterania dan kereta roda dua. Kendaraan yang terakhir adalah titik kontras dengan gerobak beroda empat di makam Hallstatt, seperti kelimpahan senjata di pemakaman La Tène. Situs yang sangat kaya akan artefak adalah Glauberg di Hesse, Jerman. Patung batu pasir seukuran manusia yang mengesankan, kadang-kadang disebut 'Pangeran Glauberg', digali di situs tersebut. Prajurit ini, yang membawa perisai, mengenakan tunik surat dan kalung obor dengan tiga liontin. Dia juga memakai hiasan kepala rumit yang dikenal sebagai tipe 'mahkota daun'. Patung itu ditemukan di dekat makam yang sudah digali, yang berasal dari paruh kedua abad ke-5 SM, dan perhiasan yang dikenakan patung itu mirip dengan yang dikenakan oleh prajurit yang telah meninggal di makam. Patung ini dipajang di Museum Glauberg.

Migrasi

Situs puncak bukit La Tne mulai ditinggalkan selama abad ke-4 SM, dan penguburan yang mencakup barang-barang berharga dan impor menjadi lebih jarang (kecuali di pinggiran kehadiran budaya seperti di Prancis utara). Hal ini kemungkinan terkait dengan 'migrasi Celtic' pada abad ke-4 hingga ke-3 SM ketika orang-orang di Eropa tengah bergerak ke selatan, menyerang Romawi, antara lain, dan menetap di tempat-tempat seperti pantai utara Laut Hitam dan di Asia Kecil bagian timur. (di mana mereka dikenal sebagai Galatia). Mereka juga pindah dari Eropa tengah ke barat ke pantai Atlantik dan ke Inggris.

Sementara itu, di Eropa bagian barat-tengah menjelang akhir abad ke-3 SM, budaya La Tne berkembang pesat saat perdagangan dibangun kembali dengan bagian selatan benua. Budak, bulu, emas, dan amber (diperoleh dari bangsa Baltik), khususnya, diperdagangkan dengan budaya selatan. Situs-situs seperti Manching di Sungai Danube di Jerman selatan dan Aulnat di wilayah Auvergne di Prancis tengah menjadi pusat perdagangan utama. Perdagangan ini dibuktikan sepanjang abad ke-2 SM dengan diperkenalkannya mata uang dan sejumlah besar penemuan amphorae anggur Romawi.

Menolak

Kemudian hal-hal mulai berubah asam. Gejala pertama dari hubungan yang tegang, kemungkinan besar disebabkan oleh meningkatnya persaingan untuk sumber daya dan peluang perdagangan, adalah pembangunan opida pada abad ke-2 dan ke-1 SM. NS oppidum adalah nama Romawi untuk pemukiman yang lebih besar, yang sekarang kami terapkan secara khusus untuk situs berbenteng, biasanya terletak di titik-titik tinggi di lanskap atau di dataran pada titik-titik yang dapat dipertahankan secara alami seperti tikungan sungai. Benteng biasanya terdiri dari dinding sirkuit pekerjaan tanah, kadang-kadang dengan parit luar. Opida belum tentu tempat pendudukan permanen, meskipun beberapa digunakan seperti itu. Sebaliknya, banyak yang, pada masa perang, digunakan sebagai tempat perlindungan dan sebaliknya sebagai tempat yang aman untuk memusatkan bengkel manufaktur dan menyimpan sumber daya masyarakat. Lingkungan yang tidak bersahabat ini semakin memburuk ketika orang-orang Romawi bertekad untuk menaklukkan, dimulai pada 125 SM dengan serangan terhadap suku Arverni di Galia. Julius Caesar kemudian menyerang dan menaklukkan Galia di pertengahan abad berikutnya, dan kekaisaran terus berkembang dari sana, mengasimilasi orang-orang Eropa kontinental ke dalam budaya Romawi. Namun, ciri-ciri budaya La Tne berlanjut hingga periode abad pertengahan di tempat-tempat yang lebih terpencil seperti Irlandia dan Inggris bagian utara.


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Seni Insular Indah Irlandia

Kitab Kells diselesaikan di Irlandia, c. 800 M. Folio ini menunjukkan teks yang dihias dengan mewah yang membuka Injil Yohanes.

Sementara sebagian besar Eropa dilanda kekacauan sosial selama berabad-abad setelah runtuhnya Kekaisaran Romawi Barat pada tahun 476 M, zaman keemasan skolastik dan pencapaian artistik yang luar biasa dimulai di Irlandia. Tidak tersentuh oleh kekuasaan Romawi selama berabad-abad, Irlandia mempertahankan masyarakat kohesif kuno yang dicirikan oleh pemukiman monastik pedesaan daripada pusat kota. Dari c. 400-1000 M — sebuah era yang lebih dikenal sebagai “Age of Saints and Scholars”— — misionaris Irlandia menyebarkan agama Kristen, membawa sekolah biara ke Skotlandia, Inggris, Prancis, Belanda, dan Jerman. Dengan melakukan itu, mereka juga mentransmisikan gaya seni baru yang berbuih ke seluruh Eropa Barat: seni Insular.

Dalam wawancara eksklusif ini, James Blake Wiener dari Ensiklopedia Sejarah Kuno (AHE) berbicara kepada Dorothy Hoogland Verkerk, Associate Professor Sejarah Seni di University of North Carolina di Chapel Hill, tentang sejarah seni Insular yang menakjubkan.

JW: Dr. Verkerk, selamat datang di Ensiklopedia Sejarah Kuno, dan terima kasih telah berbicara kepada saya tentang seni Insular saat kami mendekat Samhain.

Saya ingin memulai dengan menanyakan tentang akar seni Insular di Irlandia: Faktor-faktor apa yang menyebabkan perkembangannya dan elemen komposisi yang unik? Apakah adil untuk mengatakan bahwa seni Insular terkait dengan penyebaran agama Kristen, serta sistem patronisasi antara elit sekuler dan pengrajin?

DV: Apa yang kami sebut seni Insular di Irlandia berakar pada Budaya La Tne, nama yang diberikan untuk Celtic Continental Europe (C. 450–C. 50 SM). Penemuan abad ke-19 yang luar biasa dari lebih dari 3.000 artefak di La Tène (di Neuchâtel, Swiss) memberikan namanya ke budaya Eropa dari Zaman Besi kemudian itu adalah penemuan dramatis yang menetapkan Celtic sebagai pencipta tradisi artistik yang menyaingi orang Yunani dan Romawi. Seni pra-Kristen di Inggris dan Irlandia sulit untuk menentukan asal mulanya, tetapi para sarjana umumnya memperluas seni Insular La Tne hingga c. 650 M.

Sisi sebaliknya dari cermin perunggu Romano-Celtic dari Desborough, Northamptonshire, Inggris, menunjukkan perkembangan gaya La Tène Celtic Awal di tempat yang sekarang menjadi Inggris Raya. Ini item tanggal c. 50 SM-50 M.

Seni Insular La Tne dicirikan oleh bentuk lengkung, abstraksi, dan keahlian teknis tingkat tinggi dalam pengerjaan logam. Ini membedakan dirinya dari seni Yunani-Romawi dalam hal itu ditentukan non-narasi meskipun tradisi besar mendongeng. Tidak seperti seni Yunani atau Romawi, seni ini jarang menunjukkan aktivitas seksual atau bahkan sosok manusia utuh. Ambiguitas yang mengubah bentuk adalah salah satu karakteristik utamanya, dengan gambar yang dapat dibalik di mana makhluk adalah monster setengah manusia, setengah burung, setengah hewan, dan setengah mitos, di mana wajah mengintip dari dedaunan tempat mereka tumbuh, dan di mana latar depan dan latar belakang tampak saling bertukar. Ini adalah seni yang menuntut partisipasi aktif dari imajinasi pemirsa dengan kata lain, ini adalah seni perenungan yang tenang atau Anda akan kehilangan banyak seluk-beluknya. Dari abad pertama SM dan seterusnya, seni ini didasarkan pada desain kompas yang ditata dengan hati-hati, dan sampai kedatangan Romawi ke Inggris, sebagian besar desain menghindari garis lurus dan ruang persegi panjang.

Dengan diperkenalkannya agama Kristen, ada perubahan nyata dalam seni Insular. Salah satu alasan utama untuk ini adalah konversi ke agama berdasarkan teks suci, Alkitab. Ide buku dengan iluminasi asing bagi seni pra-Kristen di Irlandia, Skotlandia dan Inggris. Setelah kodeks, atau buku, diperkenalkan, jenis pendekatan baru yang luar biasa untuk ilustrasi buku dikembangkan. Salah satu cara untuk melihatnya adalah dengan memikirkan buku itu seolah-olah itu adalah orang yang membutuhkan ornamen untuk menyatakan status misalnya, Orang Besar membutuhkan torsi dan sarung pedang yang rumit untuk mengumumkan kekayaan dan kekuasaannya. Seniman picik mentransfer ide ini ke halaman buku. Jika itu adalah Kitab Injil, yang menceritakan kehidupan dan mukjizat Yesus Kristus, itu sangat layak untuk dihias. Kisah Inkarnasi, ketika Tuhan mengambil daging manusia, akan sering menerima dekorasi yang paling rumit karena pentingnya dalam sejarah keselamatan.

Teks yang dihias dari Kitab Durrow diproduksi di Irlandia atau Inggris (Northumbria), c. 650-700 M. Folio ini menunjukkan awal dari Injil Markus.

Seringkali ornamennya begitu rumit, itu akan mengaburkan kejelasan huruf itu sendiri, sesuatu yang tidak akan pernah dilakukan oleh ilustrator buku yang terlatih dalam tradisi Yunani-Romawi. Kontribusi lainnya adalah untuk memperkenalkan setiap buku Injil dengan halaman dekoratif, yang sering disebut sebagai halaman karpet. Ini mungkin memiliki dua fungsi: satu, untuk dengan mudah menemukan awal buku dan kedua, telah disarankan bahwa motif silang dan desain ornamen melindungi Firman dari korupsi melalui penggunaan simbol dan kekuatan magis. Ini sulit dibuktikan, tetapi akan konsisten dengan apa yang diketahui tentang kepercayaan abad pertengahan tentang sihir. Hasil dari mendekati iluminasi buku seolah-olah itu adalah perhiasan atau logam adalah secara mendasar mengubah hubungan antara kata dan gambar.

Saya bukan ahli dalam sistem patronase dan artisan, tetapi akan adil untuk mengatakan bahwa raja-raja di Irlandia terbiasa menggurui seni. Dan di Irlandia, kepala biara sering kali berasal dari keluarga kerajaan.

JW: Kitab Kells (c. 800 CE) adalah pengalaman pertama yang dimiliki banyak orang dengan seni Insular, dan orang tidak bisa tidak terpesona oleh kerumitan dan kehalusannya yang mempesona.

Dr. Verkerk, bagaimana manuskrip yang diterangi seperti itu? Kitab Kells atau NS Kitab Durrow (c. 650 CE) dibuat? Kalau tidak salah, sejarawan seni rupa masih berbeda pendapat tentang jenis alat yang digunakan dalam pembentukannya, selain kompas dan penggaris yang belum sempurna.

DV: Pertama, penting untuk membedakan antara manuskrip yang diterangi seperti Kitab Kells dan Kitab Durrow. Meskipun kedua manuskrip tersebut adalah kitab Injil, Kitab Kells adalah format codex yang lebih besar yang mungkin digunakan untuk tampilan. NS Kitab Durrow adalah kodeks kecil, atau “injil saku,” yang mungkin digunakan untuk tujuan misionaris atau pengajaran. Sebuah Injil seperti contoh Durrow (245 mm x 145 mm) akan dibawa dalam kantong kecil.

Proses pembuatan manuskrip yang diterangi akan memakan waktu lama menurut standar kami dan mungkin melibatkan sejumlah spesialis. Pertama, vellum harus disiapkan dengan membersihkan, mengeringkan, dan meregangkan kulit hewan. Maka itu harus dipotong dengan ukuran yang sesuai. Pengumpulan bisa dilakukan sebelum teks dan iluminasi selesai, atau bisa juga setelahnya. Ini akan tergantung pada jumlah juru tulis dan ilustrator. Biasanya, teks akan ditulis terlebih dahulu, dan kemudian juru tulis yang lebih berpengalaman akan mengoreksi teks sebelum ornamen dimasukkan. Seringkali sulit untuk menentukan berapa banyak “tangan” yang berkontribusi pada pembuatan naskah karena “ekspresi” individu bukanlah kualitas yang diinginkan. Buku itu kemudian harus dijahit dan diikat. Dapat dibayangkan bahwa satu orang dapat melakukan semua pekerjaan ini, tetapi dalam lingkungan monastik, lebih mungkin bahwa beberapa orang terlibat.

JW: Beberapa manuskrip dan artefak emas, perak, dan logam dengan dekorasi terbaik di Eropa berasal dari Irlandia awal abad pertengahan. Namun, pengrajin Irlandia juga menghasilkan salib batu yang mengesankan atau “Salib Tinggi.”

Salib Selatan di Ahenny, County Tipperary, Irlandia. Persilangan tinggi ini berasal dari c. 846-862 M.

Picts of Scotland juga ahli pengrajin batu, jadi mungkinkah orang Irlandia mendapatkan inspirasi dari tetangga Pictish mereka di seberang Laut Irlandia? Bagaimana batu Irlandia berbeda dari model sebelumnya yang ditemukan di seluruh Kepulauan Inggris, dan dapatkah Anda mengomentari inovasi besar dalam seni pahat yang terjadi selama era ini?

DV: Batu-batu Pictish tetap menjadi beberapa patung paling misterius di Eropa barat, terutama yang paling kuno yang mendahului konversi Skotlandia ke agama Kristen. Memang ada banyak pertukaran antara orang Irlandia dan orang-orang Skotlandia, istilah “Scotti” mengacu pada orang Irlandia sebelum tahun 1200 M. Simbol hewan yang ditemukan dalam manuskrip seperti Kitab Durrow atau Injil Echternachsangat mirip dengan yang ditemukan pada batu Pictish.

Saya percaya inovasi utama dalam patung Insular awal adalah perpindahan dari ukiran kayu ke ukiran batu. Diyakini bahwa salib paling awal diukir di kayu karena ada bukti dokumenter untuk praktik ini. Kapan tepatnya dan mengapa pematung Irlandia pindah ke batu sulit ditentukan. Kerajinan ukir kayu tentunya sangat berbeda dengan memahat batu. Saya percaya ini adalah pertanyaan penting yang masih harus dijawab: Mengapa transisi dari kayu ke batu?

Selama beberapa dekade, para sarjana telah mencoba untuk menentukan model untuk Salib Tinggi: mulai dari gading atau plesteran Carolingian hingga pengerjaan logam Irlandia. Ada beberapa masalah dengan teori-teori ini: tidak ada gading Carolingian yang ditemukan di Irlandia, dan plesteran tidak akan berjalan dengan baik. Juga, kencan ulang dari umpan silang ahenny, yang non-figuratif, hingga paruh kedua abad kesembilan M, telah melemahkan teori bahwa pertama kali muncul karya logam, lalu salib hias murni, dan akhirnya salib figural, lebih dikenal sebagai “salib kitab suci .” Pematung Irlandia tidak selalu bergantung pada imitasi pasif model kontemporer dari luar negeri, mereka berhasil merumuskan tanggapan unik mereka sendiri terhadap pemikiran dan gagasan Kristen, menggambar pada citra yang sudah lama dikenal di dalam Gereja Irlandia.

Kilree Cross, terletak di County Kilkenny, Irlandia. Salib tinggi ini berasal dari abad kesembilan Masehi.

Penting untuk diingat bahwa ini adalah patung-patung dalam lingkaran yang dimaksudkan untuk ditinggali dalam kompleks biara sehingga, patung-patung itu dirancang dan ditempatkan untuk berubah secara bertahap dalam penampilan dan penekanan visual dengan setiap terbit dan terbenamnya matahari sepanjang tahun. Perbandingan patung Pictish, gading Carolingian, logam, dan manuskrip dapat bermanfaat, namun patung skala besar dialami dengan cara yang sangat berbeda. Karena pelapukan salib, identifikasi yang tepat dari adegan figural sulit ditentukan. Itulah sebabnya saya pikir ini adalah cara baru yang menarik untuk penyelidikan untuk mengeksplorasi bagaimana salib dapat berfungsi dalam masyarakat Irlandia dan biara-biara pada khususnya.

JW: Penting untuk mengakui bahwa Irlandia tidak terisolasi dari bagian Eropa lainnya meskipun faktanya Romawi tidak pernah mendudukinya. Ada banyak pertukaran antara Irlandia dan tetangga mereka di Kepulauan Inggris dan benua Eropa. Selain itu, sejak abad kesembilan M, ada kontak, seringkali berdarah, dengan penjajah dan pemukim Norse.

Menurut Anda, apakah istilah “insular” demikian tepat untuk menggambarkan gaya seni ini? Saya telah melihat beberapa sarjana menggunakan “Hiberno-Saxon” sebagai alternatif. Apa pendapat Anda, Dr. Verkerk? Nuansa tertentu — seperti gaya band interlacing — sebenarnya berasal dari Anglo-Saxon.

DV: Dalam diskusi tentang budaya abad pertengahan awal Irlandia, Skotlandia, Wales dan Inggris, daripada mengidentifikasi istilah seperti “Britain,” “Ireland,” “Celtic” atau “Hiberno-Saxon,&# 8221 dengan asosiasi batas-batas nasional modern atau kategori etnis yang sulit dipahami, “Insular” mengakui gaya bersama dan menghindari atribusi nasional yang tidak perlu atau tidak logis. Istilah ini telah dipromosikan pada tahun 1901 oleh ahli paleograf Jerman, Ludwig Traube (1861-1907), dan kemudian diadopsi oleh sejarawan seni, Carl Nordenfalk (1907-1992), Nils berg (1888-1907) dan Meyer Shapiro (1904-1996). Pada tahun 1985, Akademi Kerajaan Irlandia, pada konferensi yang diadakan di University of Cork, menandai diterimanya istilah “Insular.” secara resmi.

Meskipun benar bahwa “interlace” adalah Anglo-Saxon, karena contoh pertama yang masih ada adalah Gesper Hebat dari Pemakaman Sutton Hoo, jenis perbedaan ini adalah yang modern. Bayangkan, jika Anda mau, seorang seniman Irlandia melihat sesuatu seperti Gesper Hebat dan berkata, 'Bagus sekali! Saya rasa saya ingin memasukkan ide itu ke dalam karya saya berikutnya.” Dan dari sana ide itu berkembang. Ada pertukaran bolak-balik ornamen, pola, dan desain yang konstan di semua seni abad pertengahan. Jadi, menelusuri asal usul sebuah desain — yang melakukannya terlebih dahulu — tidak terlalu penting daripada menghargai pinjaman dan pilihan yang dibuat oleh seniman dan pelanggan. Saya sering bertanya “Apa itu bukan dipilih?”

Peta Irlandia selama zaman keemasan awal abad pertengahan (c. 400-1000 M).

JW: Dr. Verkerk, apa yang pertama kali membuat Anda tertarik pada seni Insular, dan menurut Anda mengapa begitu banyak orang lain yang tertarik pada karya seni periode ini?

DV: Saya pertama kali diperkenalkan dengan Seni Insular di sekolah pascasarjana karena institusi sarjana saya, seperti kebanyakan di Amerika Serikat, tidak memasukkan studi seni Insular secara substansial. Saya percaya bahwa seni Insular menarik bagi banyak orang karena tidak memiliki narasi yang saya maksud bahwa Anda tidak memerlukan teks seperti Alkitab untuk menghargainya. Juga, penguasaan teknis belaka, yang begitu nyata dalam manuskrip dan pahatannya, sangat menakjubkan. Ketiadaan narasi dan kenikmatan ornamen mata memungkinkan pemirsa untuk membaca desain interpretasi mereka sendiri. Saya juga berpikir bahwa estetika lengkung yang menemukan asal-usulnya dalam vegetasi cocok untuk keprihatinan kontemporer tentang lingkungan misalnya Pagan World Tree sering menggabungkan strapwork “Celtic” ke dalam desainnya. Ornamen tersebut juga menarik karena ketepatan matematisnya yang telah menarik para sarjana di luar bidang sejarah seni dan arkeologi untuk mempelajari geometri desainnya. Seni insular terkait erat dengan gagasan “Celt.”

Semua hal Celtic telah sangat romantis dan karya seni yang terkait dengan budaya Celtic dianut sebagai bagian dari ide “bersemangat bebas” ini. Keyakinan bangsa Celtic sebagai pejuang yang sangat mandiri, tangguh, mudah mabuk-mabukan, bersosialisasi, dan bercerita adalah gambaran yang mendarah daging dan sangat menarik yang telah dianut oleh orang-orang di seluruh dunia. Ironisnya, karya seni itu tepat dan terstruktur secara matematis, ketepatan ini menghasilkan kosa kata hias yang sulit untuk didefinisikan.

JW: Meskipun seni Insular tetap menjadi estetika yang dominan di Irlandia sampai sekitar abad ke-12 M — menyatu dengan gaya Romawi setelahnya —, kita melihat pentingnya yang terus berlanjut dalam manuskrip Carolingian dan Ottonian pada Abad Pertengahan.

Saat kami mengakhiri wawancara kami, saya ingin tahu apa warisan seni Insular dalam sejarah seni Eropa? Ini adalah penyimpangan dari pendekatan ornamen klasik atau “Mediterania”?

Salib Muiredach's, terletak di Monasterboice, County Louth, Irlandia. Salib tinggi ini berasal dari abad kesepuluh Masehi.

DV: Kontribusi terbesar, menurut saya, adalah pendekatan baru untuk iluminasi naskah yang menggabungkan teks dan gambar dan ornamen. Ornamen terlalu sering merupakan sepupu miskin yang membingkai atau menghiasi adegan naratif tetapi jarang memainkan peran sentral bagi sejarawan seni yang terlatih dalam seni Eropa Barat: tradisi Yunani-Romawi. Untuk sebagian besar, studi tentang jalinan dan kerawang telah difokuskan untuk menemukan kesamaan motif dan jarang pada apa artinya menghiasi tidak hanya karya seni, tetapi juga manuskrip, patung, dan bahkan orangnya. Ornamen di media lain menghadirkan tantangan yang lebih besar.

Ketika sebuah karya patung pada ukuran dan keunggulan salib tinggi — seperti Palang Tinggi Muiredach — mendedikasikan hampir setengah dari ukirannya untuk ornamen abstrak, atau bahkan ketika proyek yang kurang ambisius — seperti Salib Kilree — mendedikasikan semua ukirannya untuk ornamen, ini menimbulkan pertanyaan mengapa ornamen begitu penting bagi pelindung dan pematung? Juga, jika ada hubungan antara pengerjaan logam dan patung, apa sifat dari hubungan itu? Apakah itu sekadar pemindahan motif dari benda-benda portabel dalam logam mulia ke patung batu berskala besar, atau adakah sesuatu yang lebih mendalam yang sedang bekerja?

Ini, menurut saya, akan menjadi area produktif untuk melihat secara luas budaya lain, di mana ornamen juga mengambil peran penting dalam berbagai media. Di sini, saya memikirkan seni Islam atau bahkan seni Jepang, di mana mungkin ada kesamaan yang dapat menghasilkan diskusi yang bermanfaat lintas geografi yang saling menguntungkan. Motif utama selama beberapa dekade terakhir sejarah seni abad pertengahan Irlandia adalah keinginan untuk menghubungkan Irlandia abad pertengahan dengan Kepulauan Inggris dan Eropa kontinental. Studi tentang ornamen memiliki potensi untuk menghubungkan Irlandia, setidaknya secara konseptual, dengan dunia yang lebih besar dengan menanyakan: Mengapa ornamen?

JW: Dr. Verkerk, saya berterima kasih banyak untuk berbagi pengetahuan dan keahlian Anda dengan Ensiklopedia Sejarah Kuno. Saya berharap Anda banyak petualangan bahagia dalam penelitian!

DV: Terima kasih banyak, James!

  1. Kitab Kells, Folio 292r, Incipit to John: “In principio erat verbum.” Iluminasi pada perkamen. Irlandia, c. 800 M. Item ini saat ini disimpan di Perpustakaan Trinity College, Dublin. Pengunggah asli adalah Dsmdgold pada id.wikipedia, 2005-19-01. (Ini adalah reproduksi fotografi yang setia dari dua dimensi, Area publik karya seni.)
  2. Cermin perunggu Romano-Celtic yang dihias. Desborough, Northamptonshire, Inggris, c. 50 SM-50 M. diameter 36cm. Pola daun semanggi yang simetris mungkin ditata menggunakan kompas atau tali, diukir dengan pola anyaman keranjang dan tekstur yang ditetaskan. Pengunggah asli adalah Fuzzypeg pada id.wikipedia, 2006-22-12. (Pemegang hak cipta dari karya ini mengizinkan siapa pun untuk menggunakannya untuk tujuan apa pun termasuk pendistribusian ulang, penggunaan komersial, dan modifikasi tanpa batas. Gambar ada di Area publik. Difoto di British Museum, London.)
  3. Teks yang dihias dari Kitab Durrow, awal dari Injil Markus. Iluminasi pada perkamen. Irlandia atau Inggris (Northumbria), c. 650-750 M. Item ini saat ini disimpan di Perpustakaan Trinity College, Dublin. Pengunggah asli adalah Dsmdgold pada id.wikipedia, 2005󈝮-09. (Ini adalah reproduksi fotografi yang setia dari dua dimensi, Area publik karya seni.)
  4. South Cross, terletak di Ahenny, County Tipperary, Irlandia. Atas perkenan Dr. Dorothy Hoogland Verkerk.
  5. Kilree Cross, terletak di County Kilkenny, Irlandia. Atas perkenan Dr. Dorothy Hoogland Verkerk. Rekreasi Peta Sumber: Duffy, Sean, Atlas of Irish History , Dublin: Gill & Macmillan, 1997. Atas perkenan Dr. Dorothy Hoogland Verkerk.
  6. Salib Muiredach's, terletak di Monasterboice, County Louth, Irlandia. Atas perkenan Dr. Dorothy Hoogland Verkerk.

Dorothy Hoogland Verkerk menerima gelar Ph.D. pada tahun 1992 dari Universitas Rutgers, New Jersey. Dia bergabung dengan University of North Carolina di Chapel Hill pada tahun 1994, di mana dia sekarang menjadi Associate Professor Sejarah Seni. Dia telah menerbitkan seni pemakaman Antik Akhir dan manuskrip yang diterangi serta seni Irlandia abad pertengahan awal. Dr. Verkerk juga tertarik pada ikonografi cair dan beragam yang ditemukan di katakombe dan sarkofagus Kristen awal dengan referensi yang kaya tentang ritual kematian. Dia juga telah menjelajahi salib tinggi Irlandia sebagai tanggapan patung potensial untuk ziarah ke Roma. Buku Dr.Verkerk, Penerangan Buku Abad Pertengahan Awal dan Pentateuch Ashburnham, baru-baru ini diterbitkan oleh Cambridge University Press. Untuk kelasnya “Celtic Art & Cultures,” Dr. Verkerk telah membuat katalog seni Celtic online, yang dapat dilihat di sini: www.unc.edu/celtic.

Semua gambar yang ditampilkan dalam wawancara ini telah dikutip, dan setiap gambar dari Dr. Verkerk telah diberikan kepada Ensiklopedia Sejarah Kuno semata-mata untuk keperluan wawancara ini.Dilarang keras memperbanyak teks dan gambar tanpa izin. Mr James Blake Wiener bertanggung jawab atas proses editorial. Terima kasih khusus diberikan kepada Ms. Karen Barrett-Wilt atas bantuan editorialnya dan Ms. Melissa Martin karena terbukti menjadi “katalis” untuk wawancara ini. Pandangan yang disajikan di sini belum tentu dari Ensiklopedia Sejarah Kuno (AHE). Seluruh hak cipta. © AHE 2014. Silakan hubungi kami untuk hak publikasi ulang.


Budaya La Tne

NS Budaya La Tne ( / l t n / Pengucapan bahasa Prancis: [la tɛn] ) adalah budaya Zaman Besi Eropa. Ini berkembang dan berkembang selama akhir Zaman Besi (dari sekitar 450 SM hingga penaklukan Romawi pada abad ke-1 SM), menggantikan budaya Hallstatt Zaman Besi awal tanpa jeda budaya yang pasti, di bawah pengaruh Mediterania yang cukup besar dari orang-orang Yunani di Galia pra-Romawi , Etruria, [1] dan budaya Golasecca, [2] tetapi gaya artistiknya tidak bergantung pada pengaruh Mediterania tersebut. [3]

Luas wilayah budaya La Tne sesuai dengan apa yang sekarang disebut Prancis, Belgia, Swiss, Austria, Inggris, Jerman Selatan, Republik Ceko, sebagian Italia Utara, [4] Slovenia dan Hongaria, serta bagian yang berdekatan dari Belanda, Slovakia, [5] Kroasia, [6] Transylvania (Rumania barat), dan Transcarpathia (Ukraina barat). [7] Orang Celtiberia di Iberia barat berbagi banyak aspek budaya, meskipun umumnya bukan gaya artistik. Ke utara memperpanjang Zaman Besi Pra-Romawi kontemporer di Eropa Utara, termasuk budaya Jastorf di Jerman Utara.

Centered on ancient Gaul, the culture became very widespread, and encompasses a wide variety of local differences. It is often distinguished from earlier and neighbouring cultures mainly by the La Tène style of Celtic art, characterized by curving "swirly" decoration, especially of metalwork. [8]

It is named after the type site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel in Switzerland, where thousands of objects had been deposited in the lake, as was discovered after the water level dropped in 1857. [9] La Tène is the type site and the term archaeologists use for the later period of the culture and art of the ancient Celts, a term that is firmly entrenched in the popular understanding, but presents numerous problems for historians and archaeologists. [10]

Periodisasi

Extensive contacts through trade are recognized in foreign objects deposited in elite burials stylistic influences on La Tène material culture can be recognized in Etruscan, Italic, Greek, Dacian and Scythian sources. Date-able Greek pottery and analysis employing scientific techniques such as dendrochronology and thermoluminescence help provide date ranges for an absolute chronology at some La Tène sites.

La Tène history was originally divided into "early", "middle" and "late" stages based on the typology of the metal finds ( Otto Tischler 1885), with the Roman occupation greatly disrupting the culture, although many elements remain in Gallo-Roman and Romano-British culture. [11] A broad cultural unity was not paralleled by overarching social-political unifying structures, and the extent to which the material culture can be linguistically linked is debated. The art history of La Tène culture has various schemes of periodization. [12]

The archaeological period is now mostly divided into four sub-periods, following Paul Reinecke. [13]

Tischler (1885) Reinecke (1902) Tanggal
La Tène I La Tène A 450–380 BC
La Tène I La Tène B 380–250 BC
La Tène II La Tène C 250–150 BC
La Tène III La Tène D 150–1 BC

Sejarah

The preceding final phase of the Hallstatt culture, HaD, c. 650–450 BC, was also widespread across Central Europe, and the transition over this area was gradual, being mainly detected through La Tène style elite artefacts, which first appear on the western edge of the old Hallstatt region.

Though there is no agreement on the precise region in which La Tène culture first developed, there is a broad consensus that the centre of the culture lay on the northwest edges of Hallstatt culture, north of the Alps, within the region between in the West the valleys of the Marne and Moselle, and the part of the Rhineland nearby. In the east the western end of the old Hallstatt core area in modern Bavaria, Czechia, Austria and Switzerland formed a somewhat separate "eastern style Province" in the early La Tène, joining with the western area in Alsace. [14]

In 1994 a prototypical ensemble of elite grave sites of the early 5th century BCE was excavated at Glauberg in Hesse, northeast of Frankfurt-am-Main, in a region that had formerly been considered peripheral to the La Tène sphere. [15] The site at La Tène itself was therefore near the southern edge of the original "core" area (as is also the case for the Hallstatt site for its core).

The establishment of a Greek colony, soon very successful, at Massalia (modern Marseilles) on the Mediterranean coast of France led to great trade with the Hallstatt areas up the Rhone and Saone river systems, and early La Tène elite burials like the Vix Grave in Burgundy contain imported luxury goods along with artifacts produced locally. Most areas were probably controlled by tribal chiefs living in hilltop forts, while the bulk of the population lived in small villages or farmsteads in the countryside. [16]

By 500 BCE the Etruscans expanded to border Celts in north Italy, and trade across the Alps began to overhaul trade with the Greeks, and the Rhone route declined. Booming areas included the middle Rhine, with large iron ore deposits, the Marne and Champagne regions, and also Bohemia, although here trade with the Mediterranean area was much less important. Trading connections and wealth no doubt played a part in the origin of the La Tène style, though how large a part remains much discussed specific Mediterranean-derived motifs are evident, but the new style does not depend on them. [17]

Barry Cunliffe notes localization of La Tène culture during the 5th century BCE when there arose "two zones of power and innovation: a Marne – Moselle zone in the west with trading links to the Po Valley via the central Alpine passes and the Golasecca culture, and a Bohemian zone in the east with separate links to the Adriatic via the eastern Alpine routes and the Venetic culture". [18]

From their homeland, La Tène culture expanded in the 4th century BCE to more of modern France, Germany, and Central Europe, and beyond to Hispania, northern and central Italy, the Balkans, and even as far as Asia Minor, in the course of several major migrations. La Tène style artefacts start to appear in Britain around the same time, [19] and Ireland rather later. The style of "Insular La Tène" art is somewhat different and the artefacts are initially found in some parts of the islands but not others. Migratory movements seem at best only partly responsible for the diffusion of La Tène culture there, and perhaps other parts of Europe. [20]

By about 400 BCE, the evidence for Mediterranean trade becomes sparse this may be because the expanding Celtic populations began to migrate south and west, coming into violent conflict with the established populations, including the Etruscans and Romans. The settled life in much of the La Tène homelands also seems to have become much more unstable and prone to wars. In about 387 BCE, the Celts under Brennus defeated the Romans and then sacked Rome, establishing themselves as the most prominent threats to the Roman homeland, a status they would retain through a series of Roman-Gallic wars until Julius Caesar's final conquest of Gaul in 58-50 BCE. The Romans prevented the Celts from reaching very far south of Rome, but on the other side of the Adriatic Sea groups passed through the Balkans to reach Greece, where Delphi was attacked in 279 BCE, and Asia, where Galatia was established as a Celtic area of Anatolia. By this time, the La Tène style was spreading to the British Isles, though apparently without any significant movements in population. [21]

After about 275 BCE, Roman expansion into the La Tène area began, at first with the conquest of Gallia Cisalpina. The conquest of Celtic Gaul began in 121 BCE and was complete with the Gallic Wars of the 50s BCE. Gaulish culture now quickly assimilated to Roman culture, giving rise to the hybrid Gallo-Roman culture of Late Antiquity.

Material culture

La Tène metalwork in bronze, iron and gold, developing technologically out of Hallstatt culture, is stylistically characterized by inscribed and inlaid intricate spirals and interlace, on fine bronze vessels, helmets and shields, horse trappings and elite jewelry, especially the neck rings called torcs and elaborate clasps called fibulae. It is characterized by elegant, stylized curvilinear animal and vegetal forms, allied with the Hallstatt traditions of geometric patterning.

The Early Style of La Tène art and culture mainly featured static, geometric decoration, while the transition to the Developed Style constituted a shift to movement-based forms, such as triskeles. Some subsets within the Developed Style contain more specific design trends, such as the recurrent serpentine scroll of the Waldalgesheim Style. [22]

Initially La Tène people lived in open settlements that were dominated by the chieftains' hill forts. The development of towns—oppida—appears in mid-La Tène culture. La Tène dwellings were carpenter-built rather than of masonry. La Tène peoples also dug ritual shafts, in which votive offerings and even human sacrifices were cast. Severed heads appear to have held great power and were often represented in carvings. Burial sites included weapons, carts, and both elite and household goods, evoking a strong continuity with an afterlife. [23]

Elaborate burials also reveal a wide network of trade. In Vix, France, an elite woman of the 6th century BCE was buried with a very large bronze "wine-mixer" made in Greece. Exports from La Tène cultural areas to the Mediterranean cultures were based on salt, tin, copper, amber, wool, leather, furs and gold. Artefacts typical of the La Tène culture were also discovered in stray finds as far afield as Scandinavia, Northern Germany, Poland and in the Balkans. It is therefore common to also talk of the "La Tène period" in the context of those regions even though they were never part of the La Tène culture proper, but connected to its core area via trade.

Ethnology

The bearers of the La Tène culture were the people known as Celts or Gauls to ancient ethnographers. Ancient Celtic culture had no written literature of its own, but rare examples of epigraphy in the Greek or Latin alphabets exist allowing the fragmentary reconstruction of Continental Celtic.

Current knowledge of this cultural area is derived from three sources comprising archaeological evidence, Greek and Latin literary records, and ethnographical evidence suggesting some La Tène artistic and cultural survivals in traditionally Celtic regions of far western Europe. Some of the societies that are archaeologically identified with La Tène material culture were identified by Greek and Roman authors from the 5th century onwards as Keltoi ("Celts") and Galli ("Gauls"). Herodotus (iv.49) correctly placed Keltoi at the source of the Ister/Danube, in the heartland of La Tène material culture: "The Ister flows right across Europe, rising in the country of the Celts". [24]

Whether the usage of classical sources means that the whole of La Tène culture can be attributed to a unified Celtic people is difficult to assess archaeologists have repeatedly concluded that language, material culture, and political affiliation do not necessarily run parallel. Frey (2004) notes that in the 5th century, "burial customs in the Celtic world were not uniform rather, localised groups had their own beliefs, which, in consequence, also gave rise to distinct artistic expressions".

Type site

The La Tène type site is on the northern shore of Lake Neuchâtel, Switzerland, where the small river Thielle, connecting to another lake, enters the Lake Neuchâtel. [25] In 1857, prolonged drought lowered the waters of the lake by about 2 m. On the northernmost tip of the lake, between the river and a point south of the village of Epagnier ( 47°00′16″N 7°00′58″E  /  47.0045°N 7.016°E  / 47.0045 7.016 ), Hansli Kopp, looking for antiquities for Colonel Frédéric Schwab, discovered several rows of wooden piles that still reached up about 50 cm into the water. From among these, Kopp collected about forty iron swords.

The Swiss archaeologist Ferdinand Keller published his findings in 1868 in his influential first report on the Swiss pile dwellings (Pfahlbaubericht). In 1863 he interpreted the remains as a Celtic village built on piles. Eduard Desor, a geologist from Neuchâtel, started excavations on the lakeshore soon afterwards. He interpreted the site as an armory, erected on platforms on piles over the lake and later destroyed by enemy action. Another interpretation accounting for the presence of cast iron swords that had not been sharpened, was of a site for ritual depositions.

With the first systematic lowering of the Swiss lakes from 1868 to 1883, the site fell completely dry. In 1880, Emile Vouga, a teacher from Marin-Epagnier, uncovered the wooden remains of two bridges (designated "Pont Desor" and "Pont Vouga") originally over 100 m long, that crossed the little Thielle River (today a nature reserve) and the remains of five houses on the shore. After Vouga had finished, F. Borel, curator of the Marin museum, began to excavate as well. In 1885 the canton asked the Société d'Histoire of Neuchâtel to continue the excavations, the results of which were published by Vouga in the same year.

All in all, over 2500 objects, mainly made from metal, have been excavated in La Tène. Weapons predominate, there being 166 swords (most without traces of wear), 270 lanceheads, and 22 shield bosses, along with 385 brooches, tools, and parts of chariots. Numerous human and animal bones were found as well. The site was used from the 3rd century, with a peak of activity around 200 BCE and abandonment by about 60 BCE. [26] Interpretations of the site vary. Some scholars believe the bridge was destroyed by high water, while others see it as a place of sacrifice after a successful battle (there are almost no female ornaments).

An exhibition marking the 150th anniversary of the discovery of the La Tène site opened in 2007 at the Musée Schwab in Biel/Bienne, Switzerland, moving to move to Zürich in 2008 and Mont Beuvray in Burgundy in 2009.

Genetika

A genetic study published in PLOS One in December 2018 examined 45 individuals buried at a La Téne necropolis in Urville-Nacqueville, France. [27] The people buried there were identified as Gauls. [28] The mtDNA of the examined individuals belonged primarily to haplotypes of H and U. [29] They were found to be carrying a large amount of steppe ancestry, and to have been closely related to peoples of the preceding Bell Beaker culture, suggesting genetic continuity between Bronze Age and Iron Age France. Significant gene flow with Great Britain and Iberia was detected. The results of the study partially supported the notion that French people are largely descended from the Gauls. [30]

A genetic study published in the Journal of Archaeological Science in October 2019 examined 43 maternal and 17 paternal lineages for the La Téne necropolis in Urville-Nacqueville, France, and 27 maternal and 19 paternal lineages for La Téne tumulus of Gurgy Les Noisats near modern Paris, France. [31] The examined individuals displayed strong genetic resemblance to peoples of the earlier Yamnaya culture, Corded Ware culture and Bell Beaker culture. [32] They carried a diverse set of maternal lineages associated with steppe ancestry. [32] The paternal lineages were on the other hand characterized by a "striking homogeneity", belonging entirely to haplogroup R and R1b, both of whom are associated with steppe ancestry. [33] The evidence suggested that the Gauls of the La Téne culture were patrilineal and patrilocal, which is in agreement with archaeological and literary evidence. [31]

A genetic study published in the Prosiding National Academy of Sciences Amerika Serikat in June 2020 examined the remains of 25 individuals ascribed to the La Tène culture. The nine examples of individual Y-DNA extracted were determined to belong to either the paragroups or subclades of haplogroups R1b1a1a2 (R-M269 three examples), R1b1a1a2a1a2c1a1a1a1a1 (R-M222), R1b1 (R-L278), R1b1a1a (R-P297), I1 (I-M253), E1b1b (E-M215), or other, unspecified, subclades of haplogroup R. The 25 samples of mtDNA extracted was determined to belong to various subclades of haplogroup H, HV, U, K, J, V and W. [34] The examined individuals of the Hallstatt culture and La Tène culture were genetically highly homogenous and displayed continuity with the earlier Bell Beaker culture. They carried about 50% steppe-related ancestry. [35]


Modern human beings, called Homo sapiens ('wise man') have lived for about 250,000 years. Pertama Homo sapiens lived at the same time as other jenis of human. These included Homo erectus ('standing man') and Homo neanderthalensis ('man from Neanderthal'). They were a little bit different from modern humans. The theory of human evolution says that modern humans, Neanderthals, and Homo erectus slowly developed from other earlier species of human-like creatures. Biologists believe that Homo sapiens evolved in Africa and spread from there to all other parts of the world, replacing Homo neanderthalensis in Europe and Homo erectus in Asia.

Homo neanderthalensis, generally called Neanderthal Man, was discovered when the cranium of a skull was found in the Neanderthal Valley in 1856. It was different from a modern human skull so scientists believed it was from a new species. [1] Entire Neanderthal skeletons have been found in other places since then. [2] Neanderthals existed before modern humans, and knew how to use tools and fire. When ancient stone tools are found, their style often shows whether they were made by Homo sapiens or Neanderthals (see Palaeolithic). By the end of the Stone Age, it is believed that Homo sapiens were the only type of humans left.

Climate is different from one part of the world to another. Some areas are hot all year, and some are cold. Some areas are dry all year, and others are wet. Most areas have climates that are warm or hot in the summer and cool or cold in the winter. Most parts of the world get rain at some times of the year and not others. Some parts of the world have oceanic climates and others have alpine climates. These differences cause people to live differently.

Climate affects what food can grow in a certain place. This affects what food people eat. If one food is easier to grow, it often becomes a staple food. Staples foods are foods that people eat more of than other foods. Staple foods are usually grains or vegetables because they are easy to grow. Wheat, maize, millet, rice, oats, rye, potatoes, yams, breadfruit and beans are examples of different staple foods from around the world. Climate also affects the types of animals that can live in any area, which affect the types of meats that are available to eat.

Climate also affects the buildings that people make, the clothes that they wear and the way that they travel.

Climate change Edit

The climate on earth has not stayed the same through human history. There are long periods of time when it is generally warmer, and there are long periods of time when it is generally colder. When it is generally colder, there is more ice on the poles of the planet. A cold period is called an ice age. There have been many ice ages in the history of the earth. Two have affected humans.

From 70,000 to around 10,000 years ago there was a big ice age which affected humans and the way that they lived. Between 1600 AD and 1900 AD there was a period called the Little Ice Age when the climate was a little bit colder than usual. [3]

The word "Prehistory" means "before history". It is used for the long period of time before humans began to write about their lives. [4] This time is divided into two main ages: the Paleolithic Age (or Early Stone Age) and the Neolithic Age (or late Stone Age). The two ages did not start and end at the same time everywhere. A place moved from one age to another depending on when people changed their technology.

The end of prehistory also varies from one place to another. It depends on the date when written documents of a civilization can be found. In Egypt the first written documents date from around 3200 BC. In Australia the first written records date from 1788 and in New Guinea from about 1900.

In the Paleolithic era, there were many different human species. According to current research, only the modern human Homo sapiens reached the Neolithic era.

Paleolithic Era Edit

The Paleolithic Era is by far the longest age of humanity's time, about 99% of human history. [5] The Paleolithic Age started about 2.6 million years ago and ended around 10,000 BC. [5] The age began when hominids (early humans) started to use stones as tools for bashing, cutting and scraping. The age ended when humans began to plant crops and have other types of agriculture. In some areas, such as Western Europe, the way that people lived was affected by the Ice age. In these places, people moved towards agriculture quicker than in warmer places where there was always lots of food to gather. Their culture is sometimes called the Mesolithic Era (Middle Stone Age).

During the Paleolithic Era humans grouped together in small bands. They lived by gathering plants and hunting wild animals. [6] This way of living is called a "hunter-gatherer society". People hunted small burrowing animals like rabbits, as well as birds and herds of animals like deer and cattle. They also gathered plants to eat, including grains. Grain often grows on grasslands where herds of grass-eating animals are found. People also gathered root vegetables, green vegetables, beans, fruit, seeds, berries, nuts, eggs, insects and small reptiles.

Many Paleolithic bands were nomadic. They moved from place to place as the weather changed. They followed herds of animals that they hunted from their winter feeding places to their summer feeding places. If there was a drought,flood, or some other disaster, the herds and the people might haved moved a long distance, looking for food. During the "Ice Age" a lot of the water on Earth turned to ice. This made sea much lower than it is now. People were able to walk through Beringia from Siberia to Alaska. Bands of Homo sapiens ( another word for people) travelled to that area from Asia. At that time there were rich grasslands with many large animals that are now extinct. It is believed that many groups of people travelled there over a long time and later spread to other parts of America, as the weather changed. [7]

Paleolithic people used stone tools. Sometimes a stone tool was just a rock. It might have been useful for smashing a shell or an animal's skull, or for grinding grain on another rock. Other tools were made by breaking rocks to make a sharp edge. The next development in stone tool making was to chip all the edges of a rock so that it made a pointed shape, useful for a spearhead, or arrow tip. Some stone tools are carefully "flaked" at the edges to make them sharp, and symmetrically shaped. Paleolithic people also used tools of wood and bone. They probably also used leather and vegetable fibers but these have not lasted from that time. Paleolithic people also knew how to make fire which they used for warmth and cooking.


Insular Art: The La Tène Style of Art and Its Influences

The La Tène style of art is very stylized, without much emphasis on realism. Repeating patterns and abstract elements are cornerstones of this style.
(Image: Lamiot/CC BY-SA 4.0/Public domain)

La Tène Style of Art

The La Tène style of art is a very stylized art. The figures we see are not intended to be realistic they are meant to suggest the figures, not represent them. This art also emphasizes repeating patterns and abstract elements sometimes these are geometric, but often they are curvilinear, with a lot of spiral forms and interlacing forms. The patterns can be almost mesmerizing.

If you start trying to unravel the threads, you can end up losing yourself in a kind of meditative trance. The early continental art in this style does not emphasize the complete human figure, although you do see lots of depictions of human heads.

This art style became wildly popular in large parts of Europe, including central Europe and Gaul, but it was only represented in a very scattered way in Spain. The areas where this art was popular were in some cases cut off from each other by land, and thus the style probably had to have been spread at least partly by sea, even on the European mainland, surely due to trading contacts up and down the Atlantic coast of Europe.

It is thus, even more, the case that trading contacts probably brought the La Tène style to Britain and Ireland, sometime in the centuries right before Christ.

The La Tène Style in Britain and Ireland

What we find in Britain and Ireland is a bit complicated, though. The art of this style that we find is broadly similar, so you find artifacts all over this region that have broadly similar designs, whether they come from Britain or Ireland.

The spiral shape, known as the triskele, is a common motif found in La Tène style of art in both Britain and Ireland. (Image: Jorge Royan/CC BY-SA 3.0/Public domain)

For example, you might find a brooch from the north of Ireland that looks remarkably similar to a shield mount from the south of Britain. Both pieces might use the same motif, such as the spiral shape known as the triskele. So, in some way, this art was using older motifs and creating a broadly coherent style across a wide geographical area.

But here’s the odd thing. Even though there are similarities between objects found in northern Ireland and southern Britain, just as we found on the continent, this art style in Britain and Ireland is not evenly distributed. It’s not found everywhere.

It’s much more solidly attested in the north of Ireland than the south of Ireland, which is somewhat surprising since you would think that the south would be more open to trading contacts, but we must be seeing the evidence of trade routes that operated in ways we cannot otherwise recover.

The point is that this is not an Irish style or a British style. It’s not even a southern style or a northern style. It’s a style that some groups of people living in these islands adopted, and others did not. And we may never know why.

La Tène Art in Britain and Ireland Vs. La Tène Art on the Continent

How is the art that we find in Britain and Ireland related to the art we find on the continent at the same time? It used to be thought that the art style came to Britain as part of a Celtic invasion, but scholars no longer believe in this invasion theory. One reason is that the art we see in Britain and Ireland is subtly different from what we see on the continent.

The motifs are very similar, yes, but they are produced in slightly different ways it’s much more as if native craftspeople in Britain are copying work that they have seen, possibly on objects brought by traders.

So, it turns out that the similarity in art is not a sign of some kind of genetic connection between the continent and the British Isles it is merely a sign that this art style proved enormously popular in certain parts of the British Isles.

Ini adalah transkrip dari seri video The Celtic World. Watch it now, Wondrium.

The striking thing about this insular art is that it ended up as the only place where this art style that came originally from central Europe managed to survive. On the continent, it was pretty much swept away by the Roman conquest of Gaul. Very little of the earlier La Tène style can be found after the 1st century A.D. In Britain, the style goes underground somewhat during the period of Roman rule, but in Ireland, it persists, and then, in the early Christian period, it bursts into a new life, and a new art style emerges out of the old.

Influences on the La Tène Style

Keep in mind that the original art style from La Tène was already very eclectic. It blended elements from the many areas with which the people of central Europe had trading contacts.

The art of the early Christian period in the British Isles and Ireland is also a mix of elements. You see Celtic motifs that have been around for a while, but also borrowings from Germanic art, such as a strong emphasis on certain animal shapes and the use of certain metalworking techniques, like gold filigree these would have been elements that had been brought into Britain by the Anglo-Saxon settlers, and also just by trading contacts with Germanic speakers from the continent.

Another important influence on this art style was classical art from the Mediterranean area, which brought in certain vegetal motifs, like the acanthus leaf, as well as broad-ribbon interlace. This art had come into the picture largely due to the influence of Christian missionaries. All these motifs were blended in complicated, dense patterns that repeat over and over. You see these patterns consistently throughout various media.

There are many such repeating motifs. The most common motifs are either curved patterns like spirals or interlace, or more geometric patterns like frets or steps, but perhaps the most distinctive pattern in this art style is the repeating use of intertwined beasts, some of which are recognizable as real animals, and others which seem to be wholly invented.

These patterns are extremely intricate, even more so than the original La Tène art that they are building on, and they are very stylized, that is, the emphasis is never on the realistic depiction of objects but rather on stripping them down to their geometric essentials and manipulating them to form abstract patterns.

We see these basic aspects of insular art illustrated across many different media, so this is a consistent art style that was used everywhere that decoration was used.

Common questions about the La Tène Style of Art

The La Tène style is a type of art that was prevalent in Central Europe and the British Isles and later survived in Britain. It is characterized by the emphasis on repeating patterns and abstract elements, including geometric patterns and curvilinear patterns, with a lot of spiral forms and interlacing forms.

Celtic designs do not owe its origins to any one place. Its origin can be traced back to a combination of influences, including early Christian art, Germanic art, etc.

Celtic art is an amalgamation of art styles that were native to the British Isles and art styles, such as the La Tène style, from continental Europe. Anglo-Saxon settlers, Germanic-speaking traders, and others who came to Britain brought with them their art, which directly or indirectly influenced Celtic art.

Insular art is also known as Hiberno-Saxon art . It’s the style of art that blossomed in the British Isles, both in Britain and Ireland, during the post-Roman or early Christian period, and influences of the La Tène style survived in it.


Around 1500 BC in Europe. This age describes the time when most tools and weapons were made of bronze, succeeding the earlier stone or copper implements. During this time, agricultural villages evolved into townships. Animals were used for riding and for pulling wheeled vehicles, and trading and shipping began. The plough was developed, along with writing and arithmetic, and men became specialized in their jobs.
[ See also: Sault ]

Around 1000 BC in southern Europe, and later in northern Europe.
[ See also: Vence ]


Celtic Art – La Tene

La Tene art is evidence that those known as the Celts were a highly artistic people and, contrary to contemporary literature, a great civilisation.

La Tene, a site beside Lake Neuchatel in central Switzerland has come to mean both a style of Celtic artwork and also a period of European history, approximately 600 – 100 BCE.

The artwork was originated by a small group of Celts living in central Europe and through the migrations of the tribes and trade with other cultures spread across the continent.

It is a particular style of artwork, metalwork that ignored realism and delved into worlds of fantasy and abstract. The artefacts were beautifully designed and crafted, firstly carved in wood or modelled in wax before being cast in bronze. Later they were inlaid with coral, enamel and glass. Metal bowls, helmets, swords and flagons, mostly discovered in burial grounds, were decorated with a highly sophisticated level of skill.

The Great Civilisation that was the Celts

At first, the designs were based on previous Hallstatt traditions, repetitive triangles and lozenges, but gradually the influence of the eastern Mediterranean and the Etruscans began to emerge. Although influenced by other styles, the fantastic images of the natural world that emerged ensured that La Tene was a unique form of artwork attributed to the Celts.

La Tene denotes a period of wealth and power to the Celts, a culture which had influence, wealth and skill. It is evident that they were the dominant culture across great swathes of Europe, and that they were mobile and that, contrary to the writings of many contemporary Greeks and Romans, they were a great civilisation.

Religious Irish Celtic Art

Irish Celtic art continued long after it had disappeared in other Celtic territories. The Christian church influenced much of the artwork, so that most of the artefacts from that period are of a religious context. All work must be carried out in the name of the Lord, and it was not until the Renaissance that princes again became patrons of the arts.

Except for the illuminated manuscripts and carved crosses, later Celtic art was a mixture of La Tene, Roman and Anglo Saxon designs. It continued to be principally a metalworker’s craft with coloured glass and enamel added for decoration.

Many of the artefacts such as chalices and drinking cups were produced in monasteries that were under the control of the church. The Ardagh Chalice, discovered in County Limerick, is a silver cup with the names of the Apostles inscribed on the outside. It was probably used for the drinking of wine during Mass. Its decoration is similar to that on the Tara Brooch, a famous and exquisite piece of Celtic jewellery.

The few objects that were non-religious were everyday clothes fastenings, such as pins and brooches.

Viking Raids and Norman Invasion

As Viking raids became more common, jewelery and objects became less decorated and ornate and the quality of craftsmanship declined. Artwork displayed a more Scandinavian influence, almost eclipsing Celtic style. The Norman invasion dispersed the Vikings and the Irish artisans again were exposed to cultural developments in Western Europe and introduced the new Romanesque style.


Isi

Though there is no agreement on the precise region in which La Tène culture first developed, there is a broad consensus that the center of the culture lay on the northwest edges of Hallstatt culture, north of the Alps, within the region between the valleys of the Marne and Moselle in the west and modern Bavaria and Austria in the east. In 1994 a prototypical ensemble of elite grave sites of the early 5th century BC was excavated at Glauberg in Hesse, northeast of Frankfurt-am-Main, in a region that had formerly been considered peripheral to the La Tène sphere. [6]

From their homeland, La Tène groups expanded in the 4th century to Hispania, Italy, the Balkans, and even as far as Asia Minor, in the course of several major migrations. In the 4th century BC, a Gallic army led by Brennus reached Rome and took the city. In the 3rd century BC, Gallic bands entered Greece and threatened the oracle of Delphi, while another band settled Galatia in Asia Minor.


La Tène culture

NS La Tène culture existed from about 500 BC to about 100 AD. Named after a town in Switzerland near Neuchâtel, it was greatly influenced by the Roman and the Greek cultures. There are two sources for this:

  • Things found
  • Romans and Greeks came in contact with the culture and called them Celts, usually. They wrote about them, most notably Julius Caesar's "On the Gallic War" (De bello gallico).

The Celts basically lived in clans, which were led by leaders, the druids and the bards. Women were much better off than under the Romans and were of a similar status to men. There were both polygyny (a man could have several women) and polyandry (a woman could have several men).


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